Courtesy Daily Times
VIEW: Direct Action Day: the tragedy — I —Yasser Latif Hamdani
Today is August 16th. Sixty-four years ago, the All India Muslim League bid farewell to its traditionally constitutional methods and resorted to civil disobedience all over India. The Direct Action Day, though peaceful in most of India, took an ugly turn in Calcutta. There are two reasons why we must revisit this painful period in our history.
The first is because, in Karachi, of late, two parties organised primarily around identity, just like the pre-partition Muslim League, are playing with fire and it might be instructive for them to revisit the Calcutta carnage and its aftermath.
Second, there is much about the Calcutta killings that exists in the Indian consciousness that is just plain untrue. For one thing, the Indian version of events is as inverted as the official accounts of that blighted day that exist in Pakistan. Contrary to what the Indians hold, all historians now agree that the massacre in Calcutta was primarily of Muslims and not Hindus.
Perhaps, revisiting this seeping wound will help heal other wounds that exist in the fractured polity of the subcontinent. The official Indian nationalist mythology conjures up two villains of the Direct Action Day fiasco — Mohammad Ali Jinnah and Huseyn Shaheed Suhrawardy — ironically two of the most liberal leaders thrown up by Muslim India. It is forgotten that in the good work Gandhi is rightly credited with in Calcutta and other places, he was aided by Suhrawardy, and yet Suhrawardy is directly blamed by Indian nationalist authors for planning and executing violence. Similarly, if Gandhi was the great non-violent agitator, Jinnah was constitutionally non-violent and incapable of violence.
Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru had famously buried the Cabinet Mission Plan with his statement that Congress would go into the Constituent Assembly unfettered by agreements. Nehru had, during the course of his discussions earlier in the year, told the British that the Muslim League was not progressive enough to carry out ‘direct action’. He had calculated along with other Congress leaders that as a party committed to constitutional politics, the Muslim League did not have the organisation or the manpower to carry out a civil disobedience movement. Nehru was right of course except that it was precisely this fact that led to an otherwise peaceful civil disobedience movement degenerating into total communal breakdown in Calcutta. The Congress remained convinced that if they were firm, Jinnah would back down from the brink. Jinnah, on his part, seems to have been convinced that if he threatened civil disobedience, the Congress would reconsider. Thus, when Jinnah and Nehru met on the evening of August 15, 1946, both men expected the other to back down. Each made a terrible error by underestimating the other’s resolve.
Jinnah left the programme for the day vague in the hope that Congress and the British would relent. This view is corroborated by Maulana Azad who also wondered — in hindsight — how a constitutional politician like Jinnah resorted to mass politics and concluded that Jinnah was driven along a course that he was reluctant to and, at any rate, understood little of. On August 14, explaining that direct action did not mean direct action in any form but a peaceful hartal, Jinnah said, “I enjoin upon the Muslims to carry out the instructions and abide by them strictly and conduct themselves peacefully and in a disciplined manner.” H V Hodson, the British Reforms Commissioner and a student of Indian politics, wrote in his book The Great Divide that “the working committee followed up by calling on Muslims throughout India to observe August 16th as Direct Action Day. On that day, a meeting would be held all over the country to explain the League’s resolution. These meetings and processions passed off — as was manifestly the central League leaders’ intention — without more than commonplace and limited disturbance with one vast and tragic exception. What happened was more than anyone could have foreseen.”
The customary Indian accusation that the Muslim League planned and executed the massacre of innocents in Calcutta does not stand the test of facts. Lord Wavell wrote on August 21 that “the estimate of casualties is 3,000 dead and 17,000 injured. The Bengal Congress is convinced that all the trouble was deliberately engineered by the Muslim League ministry but no satisfactory evidence to that effect has reached me yet. It is said that the decision to have a public holiday on August 16 was the cause of trouble, but I think this is very farfetched. There was a public holiday in Sindh and there was no trouble there. At any rate, whatever the causes of the outbreak, when it started, the Hindus and Sikhs were every bit as fierce as the Muslims. The present estimate is that appreciably more Muslims were killed than the Hindus” (page 274, Volume VIII, Transfer of Power Papers).
This was confirmed by Sardar Patel’s letter, where he gloated about more, many times more, Muslim casualties than Hindus. This letter is quoted by renowned Indian historian Sumit Sarkar on page 432 of his book Modern India: 1885-1947. One of the big gaping holes in the Indian nationalist version of history is that while all accounts seem to indicate that Muslims were armed with sticks, according to Sir Francis Tuker, “buses and taxis were charging about loaded with Sikhs and Hindus armed with swords, iron bars and firearms” (‘While Memory Serves’, quoted on this website: http://www.globalwebpost.com/farooqm/study_res/bengal_india_history/tuker_calcutta_riot.html). Who then was arming the Hindus and Sikhs?
That is beyond the scope of this discussion.
(To be continued)
Yasser Latif Hamdani is a lawyer. He also blogs at https://pakteahouse.wordpress.com and can be reached at firstname.lastname@example.org
86 responses to “Direct Action Day”
do not see it as a rebuttal , but the cardinal difference in civil disobedience to me gandhian style is the example of ‘chaura-chauri’. (in other words ‘means before ends’)
Now please do elaborate. 20 policemen got burnt and…?
Are you suggesting perhaps the direct action day continued post August 16, 1946? If so please inform us as to how you’ve reached that conclusion.
If my understanding is correct, it was the Muslims who started the fighting- it was the Sikhs and Hindoos who called their bluff. The best thing to do wud be refer to people who were on spot. IF I understand correct, Dada’s dad was a govt servant in Bengal in that period- why dont we let Dada speak.
Yes. However immaterial to my argument as to who threw the first stone.
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Wonderful analysis. Direct Action Day (“Now we also have a pistol” statement)… Jawaharlal Nehru was young… as Jinnah was a colleague of Motilal Nehru. There was an un-easiness between the two. But anyways, neither Gandhi nor Nehru held REAL power. The “real” power was with Vallabhai Patel. He was the one who brought in the “money” from the Marwari / Gujarati / Bania Seths. Someone should research on how Gandhiji’s kitchen fires burnt from 1926-1947. I mean, what was his source of living. How did he feed himself and his family ? Did he live on charity… or from funds provided by Birlas / Dalmias / Bajaj / etc. / etc ? or Did the Congress Party provide the “Rations” to his family ? What about cost of education and health-care. Who foot the bill ?
“Buses and taxis were charging about loaded with Sikhs and Hindus armed with swords, iron bars and firearms”. Who were these people ? Who armed them ? Who financed THIS project ?
The same group who half a century later financed L.K. Advani’s Rath Yatra. The goons were supplied by the same supplier., that supplied Narendra Modi with its Babu Bajrangi-led armies in 2002 (and Bal Thackerey in 1992 Mumbai).
The Bania / Marwari / Gujarati seth (Financier) who funded the riots + the rioteers / arsonists / foot soldiers provided by criminal gangs of murderers and rapists… they unleashed a series of riots… esp. the one in GURMUKHTESHWAR., where muslim infants were nailed to trees… It was after Gurmukhteshwar that Jinnah lost all hope of a “united india”. The sight broke his back. (Liaqat had toured Gurmukhteshwar)..
Unfortunately, Jinnah did not realise the scale or intensity of hatred which the Marwari Bania + Vallabhai Patel + RSS unleashed on Muslims post 1947. It was a free-for-all. Every morning at Pt. Jawaharlal Nehru’s “Teen-Murti Hosue” residence., someone would leave an earthen pot full of dis-membered muslim men’s ***** ! Very dirty work was done by RSS-Senas for a very long period of time. Go back to the the 1920s. The moment Gandhiji set foot on the Congress Pandal., the Congress of Surendranath Bannerjee and Pherozeshah Mehta and Badruddin Tyabji was changed for ever. In place of decent discussion and democracy, what came was MOBOCRACY. Decent discussion was labelled “arm-chair politics”.
Jinnah understood the dangers of mass mobilisation (mobocracy masquered as Democracy)., and at one time suggested that only matriculates be members of the Congress… but Gandhi ji insulted him for 20+ years… Non-stop. Gandhi said NO to everything Jinnah suggested, no matter how sensible. Gandhi knew., that he had to frustrate Jinnah to push him over the borderline.. where he ask.. what Gandhi ji wanted him to ask… PARTITION.. separation…
Nehru had said : “Hearts had become divided”. Very poetic expression.. but how did this come about ? It was Gandhi ji’s language.. symbology.. words he used.. that sent a very clear CODED message. Narendra Modi is using the same tactic today.. so in other words., Nitin Gadkari is absolutely justified and correct when he says that Narendra Modi is the heir of Mr. Gandhi. Absolutely.
Kolkata Killings were sold to the indian public as if Jinnah unleashed an army of goondas aided and abetted in this act by a 3-day Holiday.. given by the State Govt. headed by Husain Shahid Suhrawardy.. the co-conspirator. [As if a CM could give holidays thru-out his state., as if it is his Jagir !]. Jinnah was pushed… pushed to the max… after 20+ years of insults (and Gandhiji’s personal behavior with him was extremely curt… and rude.. Those who have interacted with Gandhi ji knew.. that inspite of sweet-quoted words., he had such hatred for Islam and muslims…. deep down in his heart… and his cloak of saintliness fell often from his drooping shoulders… ). The elite of the day understood Gandhi ji. Sri Narayana Guru, a great man of kerala had met him., and immediately said :”This is a hypocrite”. Others like Annie Besant felt the same “Channel of Hatred”. Jinnah for once., tried the Gandhian mass-mobilisation and that resulted in Kolkata Killings (where 75% of the casualties were Muslim !). In the rest of India., the day went off peacefully… as righlty noted in the article above.
Generations of Indians have been fed on false., manufactured history. Hatred for the other.. Islam.. Muslims.. (but Arab oil / arab gold / dinar / dirham / riyal is welcome.. there is a certain joy in raping a muslim girl and killing her.. there is a certain joy in killing a whole muslim family.. and illegally occupying their Haveli.. ) In essence., killing muslims, raping muslims and stealing their property is “Hindutva”. Licence to kill/rape/steal muslim property. Bas.
More and more people should dig into history. Very little has been written on the partition of India. We need more people to research… more articles.. more novels.. more plays.. more movies.. It is an engaging story. it is a story of entrapment. it is a story of how muslims were pushed.. (first push thru insult.. and then complaint “they dont join the mainstream”). With such behaviour and insulting demeanour.. who would join the “mainstream” ? So they succeeded in partitioning India.. This is what the Congress (and Esp. Gandhiji) had wanted as early as 1926. This is what Savarkar had suggested in the 1920s. This is what Lala Lajpat Rai., the headmaster from Lahore; Bipin Chandra Pal from Bengal, and Madanmohan Malaviya (the founder of Hindu Mahasabha and financier of criminal gangs / mafias) from UP… had wanted … desired.. as early as 1920s.
But why the hell did Indian muslims not see that it was a loss deal. Ghaatey Ka Sauda. You win Lahore.. but lose Delhi… Lucknow.. Hyderabad Deccan.. Kolkata.. you lose 4.. and you gain 1. This was a loss-deal.. but.. the atmosphere was charged with sweat and blood.. and Muslims were terrified. For the first time., after the fall of the Mughal empire and the 1857 killings in Delhi., they were facing a life-and-death moment… There was fear in the hearts of muslims.. that they would be wiped out by the Hindu armies…. (and the Hindus too had the fear of Muslims)… Unfortunately, both the Hindu maha Sabha and the Muslim league OVER-PLAYED the fears… and this led to the man-made disaster.
India could have been a great, ideal country had it remained united. We would not be having the cancer of RSS in India., and the Taliban in Pakistan today… Today, the peace is artificial. Very deep hatred resides in Hindu hearts for Islam, Muslims and Pakistan… It is very very deep.. though thru their sophistication… the Hindus hide it. Of course, reading Chankaya has its advantages !
How about someone also researching and writing an article on Operation Polo (Sep. 14, 1948). The theatre this time : Annexation of Hyderabad Deccan. The SUNDERLAL REPORT (that is still in-accessible., and with the Home Ministry of India… ask for it.. and they will surely say… its lost ! BTW, there is a cell in the Indian Home Ministry that monitors the activities of Indian Muslims. Set up by Sardar Patel, it is still operational to this day !). Why doesnt someone write on what SUNDERLAL REPORT contains ? In summary it details how 5 lakh muslims were slaughtered by RSS (aided and abetted by the Hindu invading army) in Marathwada.. Osmanabad.. Bidar.. Raichur.. Khillary.. Sholapur.. etc.
3000 people died in Kolkata Killings… and it was indeed deplorable.. and tragic… but why so little on Operation Polo… and the subsequent killing of half a million muslims ???
Police Action- Hyderabad Deccan 1948
But anyways, neither Gandhi nor Nehru held REAL power. The “real” power was with Vallabhai Patel.
Partly correct and I wish the Sardar had used that power to have the Gandhoo and the Fabian a-hole booted out of INC and India thru means, fair or foul.
….You win Lahore.. but lose Delhi… Lucknow.. Hyderabad Deccan.. Kolkata..……..
Look, I have told this to you before. The Mughal Empire is dead, get over it.
India could have been a great, ideal country had it remained united.
And we wud have had three Dasts where we have to contend with one. No, thanks.
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Pakistani government should hire you for their propaganda pieces!!!!!
Hilarious is an insult to the word……i feel like laughing out!!
“Very deep hatred resides in Hindu hearts for Islam, Muslims and Pakistan”
And what is the cause of such hatred?
Its amazing how a section of people play the “Eternal victims” and “Ultimate Innocent” cards at the same time!
Record of Interview between Rear-Admiral Viscount Mountbatten of Burma and Mr Chundrigar (Extract)
The Transfer of Power 1942-47, Editors Mansergh and Moon, Volume X, #199, April 22, 1947:
“I told him that I considered that the Direct Action policy of the Muslim League was the cause of the start of all the bloodshed and trouble. He pointed out that Direct Action had never actually been implemented; the notorious 16th August was called “Direct Action Day” merely because that was the day on which Muslim League Members were to meet together to discuss the desirability of Direct Action; in fact this had never been implemented.”
“I somewhat drily pointed out that it was hardly necessary to implement it observing that it had started as a direct result of this date. I told him that I would probably discuss this matter with Mr. Jinnah and get him to issue an explanatory statement pointing out that Direct Action was not part of the Muslim League policy, since the view was widely held that it was.”
This post and the resulting comments are very depressing. It’s not clear to me that they serve any positive purpose. People, we have to move on from partition and forge a new positive reality of our relations. Revisiting these tired arguments just stokes feelings or pain and resentment. Why are we intent on living in the past and repeating the errors of the past? Let’s talk about how we can make the present and future better.
Mian skip the thread then.
Vol VIII of T.O.P., #197, Sir F. Burrows (governor of Bengal) to Lord Pethick-Lawrence, Secy of State; excerpts from his report to the Viceroy about the Calcutta riots, August 23, 1945:
7. Meanwhile the Muslim League meeting at the Ochterlony Monument was taking place. The meeting actually began at about 4.0 pm though processions of Muslims from all parts of Calcutta had started assembling from after the midday prayers. A large number of the processionits are reported to have been armed with iron bars and lathis.
The numbers attending were estimated by the Central Intelligence Officer’s reporter (a Hindu) at 30,000 and by a Special Branch Inspector (a Muslim) at 500,000. The latter figure is impossibly high and the (Muslim) Star of India reporter put it at about 100,000.
The main speakers were Nazimuddin and Suhrawardy. The former in a woolly speech on the whole preached peacefulness and restraint but rather spoilt the effect by asserting that till 11.0 that morning all the injured persons were Muslims, and that the Muslim community had only retaliated in self-defence.
The Chief Minister made a Laodicean speech, of which his audience naturally remembered the hot passages more clearly than the cold. The Special Branch, by a culpable omission, sent only one Urdu shorthand reporter to the meeting, with the result that no transcript of the Chief Minister’s speech is available.
But the Central Intelligence Officer and a reliable reporter deputed by the military authorities agree on one most mischievous statement (not reported at all by the Calcutta police whose report reached us first). The statement in the former’s report is: – “He had seen to police and military arrangements who would not interfere”. The version in the latter’s is:- “He had been able to restrain the mililtary and police.”
Whatever he may have meant to convey by this – and it is emphatically is not a fact that the Police received any orders to “hold back” – the impression an uneducated audience would form of such a statement by the Home Minister must have been that it was an open invitation to disorder; and in fact many of the listeners started attacking Hindus and looting Hindu shops as soon as they left the meeting.”
@Majumdar [August 16, 2010 at 3:37 pm]
Dada wasn’t even a twinkle in his father’s eye when these things happened. However, his father was a shaken witness of the first day in Calcutta, and went back to his post rather disturbed by what he had seen. I sat him down and interrogated him – he was not very pleased at being roused from a 90 year old’s nap – and this is his account.
For the ‘oi polloi’, the old man was an IP officer and retired in 77.
1. Where were you on the 16th of August, 1946?
A. I was posted as SDPO, Serampore.
2. Did you see any of the Direct Action Day activities?
A. Yes, when I came down to Calcutta from Serampore, having got a lift from somebody, and when I was passing through Baghbazar, I saw a lot of dead bodies on the roads, with dogs worrying them, even, to my shock, jackals, which I had never seen outside Tollygunge.
There were no others, and no traffic.
However, I made my way to my sister’s house in Southern Avenue, and gave them the food I was carrying for them. On the way back, I stopped over at Lalbazaar and got a police escort to the Railway Station.
3. Did you see any rioters?
A. No rioters were visible.
4. At what time was all this?
A. In the morning, between 10 and 11’o’clock.
5. And whose bodies were those?
A. Not clear at all, but the areas were Hindu areas. They must have been Muslims.
6. Did you see any buses moving around, carrying Hindus and Sikhs, with guns and swords?
A. No, there was no public transport running.
7. Did you know if Suhrawardy was in the Control Room at Lalbazar?
A. He was not there that day, but went in later, although I didn’t see him personally. Other officers told me about this, much later. We still continued to be friendly.
8. What did you see at Lalbazaar? Were there insufficient forces?
A. Not at all. Very large numbers of white men, not the Anglo-Indian sergeants but the British inspectors, were milling around with no orders. They were very nice to me, and gave me help to get to the trains.
9. What happened in Serampore?
A. On the 16th night, the government instructed the jute mills to close down, so that work could be stopped. After the riots broke out, there were disturbances up the road all the way up to Barrackpore, but I didn’t allow anything in Serampore.
10. What specific measures did you take?
A. I ordered two-person armed patrols on cycles in each and every locality. This stopped two or three mobs as they were assembling. The cycle patrols were under orders to react immediately, and not wait for reinforcements. They were instructed that this would be construed as self-defence. All police firing without a magistrate’s order is self-defence.
11. Were there any deaths at all in Serampore?
A. I lost two Muslims; I heard trouble was breaking out, and got on my motor-cycle, as that was the quickest way, but the roads were terrible, and by the time I got there, two of them had died. I opened fire at the mob as I was riding up, and they ran.
From then on, I persuaded the SDO, Nirmal SenGupta, later Chief Secretary of WB, to come along in his much better vehicle, and he was more than willing. Between us, we kept Serampore totally riot-free. The District Magistrate was A. B. Chatterjee, and the S.P. was a British officer whose name I can’t remember.
12. Why was there such massive killing in Calcutta?
A. Because my friend wanted it that way. He kept the police out of action the first two days, the Hindu gangsters, who perhaps outnumbered the Muslims, were caught by surprise, but there was a massive reaction on the third day. Suhrawardy found to his cost that more Muslims died on the third and the fourth day than all the Hindus on the first two. He then sent the police out to quell the mobs.
13. How could you know all this?
A. I don’t know this for a fact. But I knew Suhrawardy personally, I knew that he had large organised gangs helping him in Corporation politics, I knew that when my father lost his wallet and watch to muggers, he complained to Suhrawardy’s elder relative, his own friend, and got back everything within hours, and I also know that there were far fewer Muslim gangsters than Hindu, so there is no explanation for the large numbers of Hindus killed except a surprise attack. But it is my own reconstruction. I don’t have a shred of proof.
14. Do you know that Sir Francis Tuker says that he saw Hindus and Sikhs in buses moving around?
A long pause ensued; I had to prompt him,”Do you think Tuker was lying?”
A. Tuker was a fine officer, and he must be telling the truth. That must have been the third day onwards, as the Hindu and Sikh factions were disorganised the first two days. I saw none of that myself, but I was not in Calcutta for very long that day, and was very angry about the rioting by the time I reached Serampore, so acted with force there. Anybody moving about in organised fashion would have caught it in his neck if I had any inkling of it.
15. Were any Sikhs brought into the city?
A. Nonsense. Where would they come from? There are no Sikh settlements except in Calcutta.
Dast :: Thank Almighty United India would have had far larger riots than now ( ie almost nill)…we are not interested in the glorious rule of either aurangzeb or Rana Pratap. Happy with what we’ve got.
you really are a genius…give us a hint where we can read your musings other than here
u myt have gone through the star of India newspaper article on 13 th august 1946 and have y our counter arguments ready. I will respectfully oblige
“The Secretary of the Calcutta District Muslim League notifies:-
The All-India Direct Action Day, declared by the All-India Muslim League, will be jointly observed in Calcutta, Howrah, Hooghly, Matiaburz, 24-Parganas mill areas under the direction of the Calcutta District Muslim League. The programme for the Day is as under:-
(1) Complete hartal and general strike………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
I appeal to the Musalmans of Calcutta, Howrah, Hooghly, Matiaburz and 24-Parganas to rise to the occasion and make the rally a unique success. We are in the midst of the rainy season and the month of Ramazan fasting. But this is a month of real JEHAD of God’s grace and blessings, spiritual armament, and the moral and physical purge of the nation. It is a supreme occasion of our trial. Let Muslims brave the rains and all difficulties and make the Direct Action Day meeting a historic mass mobilization of the Millat.
Muslims must remember that it was in Ramazan that the Quran was revealed. It was in Ramazan that the permission for Jehad was granted by Allah. It was in Ramazan that the BATTLE of BADR the first open conflict between Islam and Heathenism was fought and won by 313 Muslims and again it was in Ramazan that 10,000 Muslims under the Holy Prophet conquered Mecca and established the kingdom of Heaven and the commonwealth of Islam in Arabia. The Muslim League is fortunate that it is starting its actions in this holy month.”
Now,whether it was meant to be a civil disobediance or not,in Calcutta atleast ,itwas given the colour of Jihad by its leaders.
Huseyn Shaheed Suhrawardy,even if we discount the allegations that during the speech,he told he will take care of the police or was at the control room and micromanaging the response to riots,has to share the blame.He was after all not just the head of the party that organised the agitation,but the prime minister of the province of the time, and it was his primary duty to see that agitation passed off peacefully.If we dont blame him for that what blame falls on one Mr.Narendra Modi
Only the most prejudiced and jaundiced mind would compare suhrawardy or the Bengal League to BJP’s position in Gujurat.
1. Modi was in absolute majority. Suhrawardy was in charge of a cross-communal ministry where almost half of his cabinet was Hindu.
2. Modi’s party was in power in the center and was the over all majority party.
3. Victims of the violence were according to Von Tunzelman I think 75% Muslim.
I am not interested in what this newspaper reported and that newspaper reported about this that or theother… the facts that that Hindus were armed with guns… Muslims were not…. and Muslims were violently butchered.
All accounts talk of Muslims being attacked as early as 7:00 am in the morning by Hindus. Now I hate to talk in these terms … it is sick… but how long are people like Lal going to deny the facts.
If the League’s policy was ‘Jehad’, wouldn’t Delhi, Lahore, Bombay and parts of UP be better … and yet despite the fact that hartal was completely successful in those areas, hardly any violence erupted in places which were traditonally Muslim strongholds.
Either Muslims were really extremely bold to take on the Hindus where they were extremely strong and that too without guns and pistols… or Hindus just fought like hell and killed them bad Moooslims and stole their “pistols” before they could use them.
This area is one of the most important and oldest in Calcutta. It contains the Sealdah station, schools and colleges for boys and girls, the Science College and prayer hall and residences of late Keshab Chunder sen,…..It was also a very significant circumstance that the first victim in this area to pay the extreme penalty of death for disobeying the hooligans’ mandate in the name of Pakistan was a Bengali belonging to the same religion as the hooligans themselves.”
NSA mian aka Arun Gupta aka Sadna Gupta
… none of these answer my points which are quite clear. Hindus killed Muslims in Calcutta… not the other way around. These are the facts. Denying them by quoting “annual register” selectively is not possible.
Ironically… would you mind explaining why if Jinnah’s refusal to “discuss ethics” as it were was responsible for what happened in Calcutta… why Delhi, Lahore, Bombay etc remained peaceful? Surely Jinnah’s press conference in Bombay should have resonated more there than in Calcutta? My original second part is much more critical of Jinnah than anyone else…. but now I might have to re-write it.
Now I am going to let your posts stay here …. but will be deleted in due course. You are not allowed to post on this website. Why are you obsessed with me anyway Sadna. Go back to chowk.com.
“If the League’s policy was ‘Jehad’, wouldn’t Delhi, Lahore, Bombay and parts of UP be better…”
My aim is not to argue with you.To be honest,I have never even heard of direct action day before you mentioning it somewhere else in PTH.So my aim is not to deny any facts,for i know none,but presenting some other facets which a simple googling gave me,and you probably decided to ignore in your more intelligent, well read avathar.
I never wrote leagues policy was Jehad.what I wrote was “”Now,whether it was meant to be a civil disobediance or not,in Calcutta atleast ,itwas given the colour of Jihad “”
“Either Muslims were really extremely bold to take on the Hindus where they were extremely strong…”
Pardon me,but wasnt bengal the only province where Muslim League was in power.
But,YLH,Kindly proceed with your 2nd part in whatever form you deem fit.Always a pleasure to hear new viewpoints.
As you guys know , Kolkata is now an oasis of peace in the communal sense in the entire south asia . This shows what communism and left-liberals do to a city!
Most people of Kolkata dont even remember this “Calcutta Killing” thingy!
Not the only one. However… that is all the more reason, they wouldn’t have wanted violence in Calcutta and should have chosen Delhi or Bombay instead. Calcutta was not only their government, but was actually a cross communal coalition government.
I must also point out that he thinks that he was in Calcutta on the 16th, on this occasion, as he was relating the tale to me, but on other occasions, he had told me that it was on the 17th that he was in town. He is 90 +.
@lal [August 16, 2010 at 5:58 pm]
I don’t know what you mean. This was literally an account dictated to me this evening.
On another tack altogether, I am planning to put his reminiscences onto a separate blog-site; he has a host of information about days gone by and it should not be lost.
Since I recently read the NCERT books and since it is often alleged that Indian history books teach a biased view of history pertaining to Muslims and Pakistan, let me present all the references to that event in the NCERT textbooks. I quote from the 12th Std. history textbook titled “Themes in Indian History – Part III”
Early in 1946 fresh elections were held to the provincial legislatures. The Congress swept the “General” category, but in the seats specifically reserved for Muslims the League won an overwhelming majority. The political polarisation was complete. A Cabinet Mission sent in the summer of 1946 failed to get the Congress and the League to agree on a federal system that would keep India together while allowing the provinces a degree of autonomy. After the talks broke down, Jinnah called for a “Direct Action Day” to press the League’s demand for Pakistan. On the designated day, 16 August 1946, bloody riots broke out in Calcutta. The violence spread to rural Bengal, then to Bihar, and then across the country to the United Provinces and the Punjab. In some places, Muslims were the main sufferers, in other places, Hindus.
After withdrawing its support to the Cabinet Mission plan, the Muslim League decided on “Direct Action” for winning its Pakistan demand. It announced 16 August 1946 as “Direct Action Day”. On this day, riots broke out in Calcutta, lasting several days and leaving several thousand people dead. By March 1947 violence spread to many parts of northern India.
The Direct Action Day riots in Calcutta was a tragic event in our history. People of both major communities died in large numbers in those few days. And there was great brutality on both sides. First by the Muslims and subsequently by the Hindus when they retaliated in force.
Huseyn Shaheed Suhrawardy was a gentleman, as demonstrated by his decision to set political differences aside and work with Gandhi to quell the violence in 1947, even at the risk of earning the ire of the Muslim League. This is where he differs from the likes of Modi.
But even the best of men can have their brief moments of madness. The history of what he did and did not do on the 16th of August is not crystal clear and will perhaps never be. But there are several questions raised on his actions – in his speech at the Maidan, and his alleged role in the police control room. These cannot and should not be swept under the carpet while acknowledging the positive role he played later.
What’s the point of revisiting the EXACT course of events of this extremely unfortunate day? How long will we continue to fight over if Muslims killed Hindus more or vice versa? After 63 years and many one-sided accounts, do you really believe that you have uncovered the untainted truth? (Remember we are talking about the muslims of Bengal. The present day Bangladesh which they inhabit under Hasina is now in excellent relationship with India. I hope Pakistan and India become friends too. I have a special interest in that.)
Do you think Indian textbooks give a one-sided account of these events? Is that why you feel an obligation to clear the minds of everyone? Let me inform you Indian books hardly ever touch such sensitive Hindu-Muslim issues. Remember Hindus and Muslims both read these books. This is the sort of secularism which is forced upon you when you have people from both communities in fairly large numbers. Unless BJP stays in power for a long time (like, say, the Congress has), Indian books will remain largely impartial on these matters because of, simply put, the requirement of votes. Hell, even BJP is realizing that they need to woo more muslim votes and reformulate themselves as a pan-Indian party.
Whatever some right-wing Indians say (remember, “there are crooks and cranks” in every part of the world), they pick these things up in later parts of life. And you wouldn’t be able to change their minds no matter what you prove. So please feel free to leave such matters to the dustbin of history.
Whatever happened on that fateful day, at best it was a sorely mismanaged and very naively executed agitation. And it poisoned the well for many years to come, killing all chances of a reconciliation. The whole sub-continent is paying the price of this, but it has been especially devastating for the muslims. So, please let go of the poisoning.
You cannot re-write history. Facts remain. Direct action day, (yaum rasta iqdam) was STARTED by the muslim league in kolkata. (one-third muslim). The hindus were taken aback. The hindus retaliated the next day. The muslims were taken aback. They realized demographics. The second stage took place in naokhali in east bengal. Group of islands in gangetic delta, 80% muslim. about 125,000 hindus wiped out. because of the remoteness of the area the news took a long time to reach outside world. When the news reached out, the hindus of hindu majority bihar, celebrated “naokhali day” and fell upon the muslim minority. The muslim league in bihar requested their colleagues in punjab, (rawalpindi side) to retaliate. The hindu-sikhs were at the receiving end. This action-reaction led to the inevitablity of partition. The reaction of partition also had its effect in east punjab in India. Entire muslim community wiped out. hardly half percent muslims in Indian punjab/haryana/HP. What happened in west punjab, had its reaction in east punjab.
Also what was said about hyderabad state is true. For one year it was not under Indian sovereignty. They knew that they would be attacked, they did a lot of injustices on hindus in the state, by razakar brigade. After the death of Jinnah, sardar patel did operation polo. hyderabad state surrendered in 3 days flat. The injustices of one year came out when hindus retaliated against muslims in hyderabad. 10-20% of adult male muslim population wiped out.
Today, kashmir is becoming pakistan/islamic state. I shudder to think WHAT will happen if the reaction reaches Tamil nadu. What happened in punjab/hyderabad can happen all over India.
@ Indian Pundit
“As you guys know , Kolkata is now an oasis of peace in the communal sense in the entire south asia . This shows what communism and left-liberals do to a city!”
That’s interesting to know. How was this achieved after so much killing and hatred?
@Tilsim [August 16, 2010 at 9:48 pm]
It wasn’t easy. In fact, some of us feel that the pendulum has swung too far, and we give in to Muslim communal pressure because of sheer embarrassment about bad behaviour towards them in UP (you are all too young to remember the horrors of the UP PAC), the Babri Masjid, Gujarat….
Going back, many policemen – most policemen in a very well-policed town – felt angry at the restraints put on them by the politicians during the 46. There was no trouble in West Bengal worth the mention in 47, but there was trouble on at least two occasions, once in the early 50s, once in the 60s.
The trouble in the 50s was a reflection of the trouble going on in East Pakistan; the real migration of Hindus did not take place exclusively in 46-47 (my grandfather stayed on in Dhaka stubbornly till the 50s, till my father’s friends called him and asked him to take the old man away; things were getting very tricky). Large numbers migrated in the 50s, more again in 71.
In the 50s, there was not a single death in south Calcutta, filled with prominent Muslim localities. The police knew what they didn’t want to see or hear, and were coldly determined to have their way. There were a few deaths in other parts of the city, and a very, very few outside, and everyone felt it was a blot. Even the dispossessed, middle class and peasant alike, who had lost all in the migration from the east; both sides of my family, for instance. There were losses, which we don’t talk about; not everybody reached safely. But even they, while not feeling very kindly towards Muslims, felt that killing them was not on.
In the 60s, an incident I remember well because the smoke rose in a sinister cloud above the city, and interrupted the Horse Show, where I was heading for a certain red ribbon in the Dressage, the Biharis attacked the Biharis. An area outside Calcutta, full of jute mill workers, called Telinipara was attacked. The police reacted late, and with fury at having been caught napping. There were deaths, but as far as I remember that was it. I don’t remember the year; interested readers can look up M. J. Akbar’s autobiographical works, as he and his people were victims there.
From 66 onwards the Left Front came to power, and that was it. No more communal tension. Period. It was non-negotiable, and anything even hinting at communal trouble was jumped on viciously.
Between the police, who had a free hand, and who never were communally infected, and the pols, who genuinely disliked it, Bengal stayed clean.
Unfortunately, it went too far. As I said, things swung to the other extreme; Taslima Nasreen can tell us a lot about that. Or the hapless Statesman sub-editor who made a totally trivial remark which the Mullahs took badly, and which caused the Statesman House to be surrounded and barricaded until the unfortunate man was sacked. Or the Muslim lady who was told by the student body president to wear a burqa or not to bother to come to teach.
All things considered, although this kind of bullying sets any decent person’s teeth on edge, it’s better than Gujarat.
Whereas that may be one way of arguing the issue,wherever there is large scale rioting it will either require a complicit police/beurocracy/executive or a total breakdown of the state
No wonder I havent heard of it.Havent read history after X :).I am sure you are not sugggesting that future actions of Modi in no way exonerates him from his past (in)action.
The swinging to the other extreme, as you put it, is not just because of any supposed embarrassment at what happened in UP or Gujarat or elsewhere. There were cold electoral calculations behind it.
No, I was talking about the very vocal civil society stalwarts who had come forward in Lalgarh and Singur. Not the Alimuddin Street apparatchiki.
The recent NCERT books for the 9th/10th Std. don’t mention Direct Action even once. And the 11th/12th Std. textbooks have only those two references that I quoted. I did not study history after the 10th either, having taking the Sciences in 11th/12th. However, the old 10th Std. NCERT textbook, which I used when in school did cover the Direct Action Day riots (only in passing) and it essentially said what the 12th Std. textbook says today. That lots of people died and that violence spread from there to other parts of India, in which Indians, Hindus and Muslims suffered.
Also, thanks for sharing the eye witness account from your father. It must have been on 17th morning – his account of the absence of people/traffic on the street, the presence of dead bodies in Baghbazar and the fact that the saw all this in the morning, at around 10-11am point to the fact that it was not the 16th.
As an Indian, I am kind of embarrassed by you. I was compelled to read a recent comment of yours since it was on Bengal, more precisely, Kolkata (my erstwhile home).
You said “Britain always hated Indian Muslims. Compare the British Treatment to Rabindranath Tagore versus British handling of Kazi Nazrul Islam., who was a fine Bengali poet”, thus implying that Tagore’s Nobel prize (BTW, not in 1926!) was for his “services” to Christianity.
Obviously, you either do not know Kolkata, for that matter Bengal (both East and West), or you have read neither Tagore nor Nazrul . Nazrul Islam, much loved by Muslims and Hindus alike in both East and West, even wrote many famous Shyama sangeets (devotional songs for Goddess Kali) and Boul gaans (devotional songs for Krishna). Similarly, have you ever heard of Tagore’s “Musalmanir Golpo” (“Story of a Muslim Girl”)? This is quintessential Bengal, not what you project it to be.
They were both great authors, dear to ALL Bengalis, but nobody from the muslim community ever complained that Nazrul deserved the Nobel prize, but the British just gave it to Tagore. Simply put, there is no comparison between the two in literary achievements and All Bengalis know this. Along with India there is one other country whose national anthem was written by Tagore. Can you guess which country that is?
This goes at the very heart of the wisdom of separating the Bengals. There is just so much in common (other than the majority religion). And Bengalis, I take a little pride to say, value their culture (language, literature, music, art etc. Hindu and Muslim variety alike) almost as passionately (if not more) as religion. That’s also partly the answer to Tilsm’s question above. The Direct Action day was truly History’s painful aberration. There have been a few like that, but overall, Kolkata has remained peaceful in most times of crisis.
I think so too. On earlier occasions, sometimes he’s said 17th, sometimes 16th. The motorcycle incident was the next day.
The same day, he led a lathi-charge with three other constables only to find half-way through that his subordinates obviously had a somewhat more relaxed approach to these stressful situations. Fortunately for me (this happened four years before I was born), the west Bengalis facing this slightly farcical one-man charge looked at the general situation much as his constables had done. They generously granted him his point, and withdrew collectively at a civilised canter, just slightly faster than his pace.
This was reported, many decades later, by the then SDO who had watched the whole scene helpless with laughter. While those of us who heard this re-enactment were similarly afflicted, the protagonist got up and stiffly and pointedly poured Nirmal-jetha another drink. Even the way the ice-cubes were dropped in was a dignified rebuke, worthy of an Oscar.
The song to remember is A Policeman’s Lot is Not A Nappy One.
m.a. jinah was reluctant in going ahead with the direct action ,but went ahead anyway because may be he was pressed for time.he new he had t.b. and less time to live and wanted pakistan to materialize before his time without thinking of the consequences.his two nation theory has failed as today muslims are not ready to live along side muslims in his pakistan.all the violence and killing durring the separation is on his conscience and the present day violence in kasmir can be accredited to him as well.had he not tried to userp kasmir by sending in his terror group in 47, kasmir today wouldhave been a separate state.he forced harisingh to side with india,and hence the present scenario.all his actions have followed death and distruction.
Gr8 soap opera. :))
Lemme try to write to Daily Times to pulverise this attempt story (ie falsification).
Lemme try to write to Daily Times to pulverise this story
You are an Indian Muslim. You have your concerns that directly affect you as an Indian and a Muslim. To what extent these are justified or not, this is a dialogue that you need to thrash out with your compatriots. As a Pakistani, I have to develop a new relationship with India, one that is not constrained by the history of united India and the relationship between Hindus and Muslims. My concerns and your concerns are different because we are now citizens of two different nations.
You are concerned about the Sangh Pariwar. I also have a problem with the rise of the Sangh Pariwar but only as it affects the stance of India towards my country. Similarly, you as an Indian and a Muslim are affected by the rise of religous extremism in Pakistan, to the extent that it affects your nation.
Beyond this, Pakistan cannot help solve the problems of Indian Muslims as much as India can solve the problems of our minorities. We have to solve these issues ourselves with our compatriots.
We can sympathise with any injustices that might happen to our co-religionists but we complicate and multiply problems if we start interfering.
My interest is in improving relations between Pakistan and India (because I believe that it’s in both our nations’ wider interest). You have your way at looking of things, I have mine. My family used to live in India. In our house my elders told me that, during Urs, Hindus and Sikhs would participate with utmost devotion, listen to qawalli and eat together from the same lunger. That is also a reality of inter-faith relations that we should not forget. That is why I find a lot of the extreme opinions expressed on this website and others as an expressions of pain. This pain is there because we let it be there. Each side has it’s pain. If we looked at things in a different way, spoke to each other differently perhaps we could start the healing and recognise the common enemy which is intolerance, fear, hubris and a host of similar things.
At the moment, we are dismally failing and this is leading to a rise in extremism across our two countries. We have one life, we can either add to human misery or seek ways to reduce it.
The point Yasser want to make is that Hindus, Sikhs killed back Muslims after 3 days of murder by Muslim League which he think is not a ‘secular’ thing.
@ Bathplug @ Nonsense
So dissecting this, one can say:
– zero tolerance to communalism
– stressing the common culture and language bonds
– taking an interest in each others religion
That’s an excellent place to start.
How about quotas in government jobs or legislation that would prevent discrimination say, in business or in the work place?
August 17, 2010 at 1:24 am
So dissecting this, one can say:
– zero tolerance to communalism
– stressing the common culture and language bonds
– taking an interest in each others religion
That’s an excellent place to start.
I’m not so sure that in reality, it happened with such conscious premeditation. The zero tolerance to communalism was really what people wanted. I don’t know that it was articulated; probably among the cadres by the parties. Not in society; talking about such things is a little bizarre. It’s taken for granted in a kind of way, the right thing to do, although there’re no lack of unkind references in private conversations to extremism of the other.
About stressing the common culture and language bonds, again, it isn’t conscious. It’s understood that being Bengali is the single most important thing in the world, and that everything falls in place once this is established. No Bengali talks to another in English, outside the country, no matter what the company; that used to be the unwritten, undiscussed, but very well-understood rule.
Nazrul being part of daily life is not pre-planned; just listening to one of his earthier patriot hymns, of which there are a large number which never come into the ‘Indian’ repertory, is enough to tell you which way to think about him. The language has stagnated a bit in these parts; in ‘Desh, they’ve pushed it, and it’s a lambent flame in their mouths, they can drive people to insane frenzy with it. No Bengali can listen to Mujib telling Bengalis that they were on their own, without blood rapidly coming to the boil. Their poetry, their music, their plays, all show that they are Bengali first, everything else later.
Sensitivity to each other? I’ve already shared with readers my old father’s quite involuntary picking three of ‘the other’ as friends about whom he wanted to write. He really hadn’t caught that they were the other.
It helps me listen to Bulleh Shah with deep emotion; it brings ‘the other’ in to Puja pandals, carefully skirting the religious bits, concentrating on the food, the clothes, and picking out all the goodlookers.
You know a good way to teach people this kind of stuff? Pass it on, and I’ll guarantee you a fortune.
Taking an interest in each other’s religion is a tough one. It happens, more in favour of the Hindus than the other way around, I think. Now that ‘Desh is there, I don’t think that applies any more; it used to be so in older days. But to have huge crowds at an Urs is commonplace; nobody would turn around and check who’s saying this if you were to remark out loud in a crowd that this was a unifying factor. “Yeah, sure it is, what’s the big deal?” The guy who put ‘alta’ on my dead mother’s feet was a Muslim; what was I supposed to do, stop him? In the little dargah between the sweet shop and the electrician, everybody stops by before going on. The exact same crowd stops at the little temple under the trees just around the corner. It’s not the Bengalis, it’s everyone; Calcutta kind of calms you down about this, usually.
Nobody thinks this through. Not that I know of. It helps that a huge sub-stratum is a peaceful ‘Bhaiyya’ crowd from Bihar, harmless necessary workers, doing all the heavy lifting that Bengalis shirk.
How about quotas in government jobs or legislation that would prevent discrimination say, in business or in the work place?
My personal view: we’re too poor to afford these extra bits of bureaucracy, but nobody really consciously discriminates. There is a bit of the other type: unconscious, positive discrimination, especially among we uns (any Bengali can pick up on this one from the hints that follow). I was taken out for a drink this evening by Mr. X1, and promised an introduction to Mr. X2; I happen to be named X0, you see. But then, on the other hand, we went to the same school and the same management school; which string was being pulled? Your guess is as good as mine.
Will quotas help? Andhra Pradesh is trying that route; let’s watch and see.
Now stop asking tough questions. Sometimes these things don’t survive protracted attention. End of the day, just remember there’re more of us than there are Arabs. If we want to declare Bengali a religion, we have the numbers to make it work. But I think it already is, somebody forgot to tell the papers about it.
Rumesh, you are mixing J with Gandhi.
Wht if the bureaucracy and police were Hindu?
Have some shame. Even your email is hindutvadi. Why bother? We know that you will not recognise the truth if it jumped out and bit you.
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It would be wrong to say that Calcutta is some sort of island in a vast communal sea. Episodes of severe Hindu sentiment can occur among a tiny minority of Hindu Bengalis. Generally, Bengali Hindus are indifferent to Muslims. Religion does not excite them the way poetry does, or other forms of abstract thought. Once or twice every year during the puja festival they get religion out of their systems; thereafter concentrating on music, poetry and Hegel’s dialectics alone, now that dialectical materialism is passe.
Calcutta’s last communal riot was in 1964 January. About a 100 died. The killings took place on a stretch of the Upper and Lower Circular Roads starting around the Raja Bazaar area and extending South by way of Sealdah and Entally to Park Circus. Kidderpore was also affected somewhat.
The violence was such that the police could not control it. Gulzari Lal Nanda the Union Home Minister flew in and brought some Army battalions in. Within a day it was all peace.
That round began with Kashmir.
The Moe e Muqaddas, the hair of the Holy Prophet disappeared from Hazratbal in January ’64 (Apparently it had been borrowed by Bakshi Ghulam Mohammad in the hope of curing his ailing mother). The valley shut down in protest and in Noakhali riots erupted against Hindus. Those riots then impacted Calcutta.
The great majority of Calcutta Muslims are not Bengali speaking, being migrants from Bihar and UP.
I was talking about remorse. Did the balme game continue after Direct Action Day, was there real remorse shown by ML.(on the consequences of the civil disobedience). somehow i feel (unsubstantiated-iam not a historian) the goal towards a separate homeland was considered far more important than the lives laid down in the process of it.
Anyway as u argued it perhaps showed Jinnah’s naviete than malice.
“The great majority of Calcutta Muslims are not Bengali speaking, being migrants from Bihar and UP”
You are talking about the situation now. It wasn’t always this way. Further, in the countryside, particularly the northern part (northern part of West-Bengal), the muslims are almost uniformly Bengali-speaking. West Bengal has the largest muslim population in India after UP. Percentage wise, it is above UP.
Tilsim : The Sorrow – The Pathos. Why cant man get rid himself of it ?
History of killings, loss of property, discrimination, tears, sweat, blood, changed fortunes… is transmitted thru ORAL HISTORY which is a force far stronger than any Law or custom. This stays with people for centuries… and this helps form a “Mindset”.
Is there a joy in keeping the wound green ? Why does Steven Speilberg make movies about Jews during WW-II. Of what use is Speilberg’s movie ? There has to be a purpose. There has to be a reason. And, there is one.
Tears and Tragedy when INTERNALISED change a man. The pain thus internalised is a force stronger than atomic energy. But it should be handled with care. When a nation internalises its pain… maintaining balance… and turning that pain NOT into hatred for the other (retribution)., but as a means of PURIFYING NOSTALGIA… then such energy can do wonders. It can change the destiny of a nation. Sorrow and Tragedy… not in a pathetic sense… not leading to self pity… and endless hatred for the other… (that is RSS strategy… manufacture hatred… sell it as history… and from age 4., turn boys and girls into future missiles against fellow muslim citizens)… but to remember the CUMULATIVE SORROWS experienced by a nation / group of people… and derive sensitivity.. serenity.. and maturity from that history. A mature nation is a great asset… and when such people.. such kids… such men and women.. take to tasks of the world., be it the world of science or social sciences., math or psychology., they excel. It sharpens the mind…
Tilsim : I understand the compulsions of your post… which is very valid… and extremely practical and honest. There is no greater virtue than honesty. Muslim-Muslim Bhai Bhai is a bluff. Pan Islam is a Bluff. Yes… let me put it bluntly. The vision of Jamaluddin Afghani., Iqbal, Bahadur Yar Jung., Raja Saheb Amir Mohammed Khan of Mahmudabad…. was romantic.. naive.. and WRONG. It was a romantic concept… which was good at High School Debate level., but did not work on the ground (it never worked)… and MEANS are as important as the end. You cannot have right results using wrong means. It leads to a terrific disaster.
What has happened, has happened. It cannot be reversed or un-done. Now flow with the tide. We only have the present… and if we look too much into the future… that interferes with the present… and the vision (for the present) gets blurred ! I understand… but cumulative historical energies… are like “wealth” for a nation. Never let the eye get totally dry… cuz tears are a huge asset… and pain in the heart… is an asset of far greater value… than all oil wells in the Arab peninsula (the word Arab world is a misnomer and another bluff used to boost Arab pride.. which is nothing but a paper boat) put together.
So we have our separate destinies. We cant do anything for each other… except sympathy in situations of sorrow… and compliments in moments of joy. It has come to that. It has always been that. Life is like that. When a family expands… it separates… and each goes his/her own way. However, I… would say… that since Muslims (and Islam) are an IDEOLOGICAL nation (not geographic)… pain and sorrow affecting one (in any part of the world) does affect one.. does affect me.. though i may not be able to do anything for them.. except feel angry at my helplessness ! Aah insaan ki majbooriyaan ! The Hindus cannot understand THIS aspect of the muslim mind.. cuz they are not a world-community. As they grow., and migrate world-wide… maybe after a few centuries… they will develop this quality too… and THEN they will understand.
BTW…. no one came back with a comment on “Sundarlal Report Operation Polo 1948″… Guess truth is bitter… and no one wants to stir a bee’s hornet.. .esp. when the truth contained therein is hard to digest. It needs great character to face reality.. painful reality..
And move on… Yes move on… we must.. one must.. I think the common man, moves on. The compulsion of ROTI is far stronger than the compulsion of accumulated history !!!
“Sundarlal Report Operation Polo 1948”
Royal State of Hyderabad
This is what wikipedia tells us
“The 1941 census had estimated the population of Hyderabad to be 16.34 million, over 85% of who were Hindus and with Muslims accounting for about 12%. It was also a multi-lingual state consisting of peoples speaking Telugu (48.2%), Marathi (26.4%), Kannada (12.3%) and Urdu (10.3%). In spite of the overwhelming Hindu majority, Hindus were severely under-represented in government, police and the military. Of 1765 officers in the State Army, 1268 were Muslims, 421 were Hindus, and 121 others were Christians, Parsis and Sikhs. Of the officials drawing a salary between Rs.600-1200 per month, 59 were Muslims, 5 were Hindus and 38 were of other religions. The Nizam and his nobles, who were mostly Muslims, owned 40% of the total land in the state!“
Royal State of Hyderabad
In light of the above FACTS i am sure everyone can see how a minority absolutely dominated the hindu majority
Dastagir: //The Hindus cannot understand THIS aspect of the muslim mind.. cuz they are not a world-community. As they grow., and migrate world-wide… maybe after a few centuries… they will develop this quality too… and THEN they will understand//
This is another of your nonsense. Hindus incidentally have migrated from India to far off places like guyana, south africa, nigeria, singapore, malaysia, srilanka, fiji in the old times and of late all across developed world
we dont interefere in the affairs of the ‘HINDU’ in any of these countries. What they do is theirs. Yes all the hindus are proud of their legacy. However loyalty lies with their country of ‘origin’ – considering their forefathers migrated centuries back
Your crazy theories has no takers in the sane world. You have a long way to go to get to know this fact a pakistani muslim at the end will be a pakistani. An omani muslim is an omani. An omani will always have a problem with a baluchi in Muscat and ruwi lanes. At the end of the day an omani will prefer giving his work permit authorisation to a malayali than a baluchi. Both may be muslims or otherwise is immaterial. At the end of the day it is the comfort one enjoys doing business and thats what should matter on the streets.
Grand Ayatollah plans are good to create arson and violence nothing more
A. G. NOORANI’s view of Sundarlal Report Operation Polo 1948:-
“Dr. Charan Sandhilya, Director of Pandit Sundarlal Institute of Asian Studies at Ghaziabad obtained for this writer a copy of the full text of the Sundarlal Report from the Nehru Memorial Museum and Library, New Delhi (excerpts on facing page). It record s official sponsorship and reflects their objectivity in denouncing the Razakars’ murderous attacks on Hindus, in praising officials where praise was due, yet never flinching from telling the terrible truth about the massacre of Muslims.”
Curious that from Dastagir’s account “Razakars’ murderous attacks on Hindus” part was completely missing……………..
Well, well, well,,,,
It seems the author (along with all the comments posted) is keen to “explore” the brutalities and killings that had happened in India during the last 60 to 80 years ( as if thats how long the history of India stands).
‘At any rate, whatever the causes of the outbreak, when it started, the Hindus and Sikhs were every bit as fierce as the Muslims. The present estimate is that appreciably more Muslims were killed than the Hindus” (page 274, Volume VIII, Transfer of Power Papers
Its possible that the majority of dead was tilted towards the Muslim side and they could be out numbered by the so called “fierce” Hindus and Sikhs,,,,, but such killings can not be just limited to this era and one has to understand and ofcourse study the (brutal)history of Islam in India way from the days of Mohd Gauri’s and his likes ( who had massacred hundreds if not thousands during his many conquests of the all Hindu India) .
Killings and lootings has through out time been a major part of of the Indian history through its many conquests by invading armies from both the east and west.
I have nothing against the author of this post (i enjoy reading many of his articles), but to say that Indians have distorted their historical facts about the Calcutta incident,,,
,,,,well my dear all along the long history of invasions and conquests, its the victors and the people who held power, are the ones who have written their version of the events and have made the vast majorities to believe their versions of distorted history ,,,,,,( arab history in particular)
so please dont single out just India ( and its rulers)
Prasad : is displaying his newly-acquired arrogance. Thanks to the 10% growth for 10% population ! (and dont talk about the 700 million who are under-nourished.. walking corpses.. with 400 million who earn less than Rs. 20/- per day. I am quoting Sitaram Yechuri’s figures.. circa last week).
What is hinduism ? Nothing but “Spiritual Aparthied”. Remember this, Prasad… and reflect on it. If you need guidance., ask… Read Ramakrishna Paramahansa., Sri Narayana Guru., Vivekananda… Unfortunately Hindus today have learnt what Hinduism is about., from LK Advani, Modi and Togadia… and all they are interested is in hurting “muslims”. You hurt muslims., and that is enough to qualify to be a good hindu. Without muslims.. can hinduism stand on its own for 24 hours ?
Read Kanchi Iliah… Read Ramakrishna Paramahansa seriously… it may take months.. but so be it. Read Vivekananda… Sri Narayana Guru… and compare it with the HINDUISM on the ground today (2010)… What has it become… How does it look on the ground ? Does it have a future… As education spreads… as awarness grows… will Harijans / Dalits / SCs / STs (kept under the blanket of Hinduism.. by bribing them with reservations… by offering them the inducement of a lollipop to remain Hindu). Inspite of the Reservations… the conditions of Dalits has not improved immensely (though it has improved… yes… but not substantially to the desired level). Remove the reservation lollipop… and see… Even the reservation lollipop will lose its relevance.
People want “Respect”. Humans crave for “Respect and Acceptance”… and hinduism is based on its caste system… and as Gandhiji said : “I wont touch it even with a stick”.. I guess… as Harijans and Dalits get educated… they will crave for respect… and “acceptance” (Love). In this endeavour., they will opt for CHRISTIANITY as a way of life. Man by nature respects the rising sun (Chadtey Suraj Ko Salaam)., and today… US is the sole super power and represents the worldly might of Christiandom (Demolish a Church in India and see how Obama reacts… inspite of all his scholarship.. try it). So, reservation-lollipop will not work in the long term. Ambedkar knew.. his people were weak.. so he became Buddhist.. as a stop-gap arrangement (transit).. gave time for his people to gather strength (jaan in their feathers).. so that they fly at the right moment.
Even Rabindranath Tagore (and Raja Rammohan Roy) wanted to take Hindus down the path of Christian Catholicism… and there is nothing wrong with that…
India’s future is CHRISTIANITY… It will be hard for Hindus themselves to find spiritual solace in the customs.. the pujas.. (a new scooter : the Pandit charges Rs. 500/-. a new car : the Pandit charges Rs. 5000/- today). Hinduism is a very expensive religion… (Islam is the simplest and cheapest to follow.. there are no brokers.. or sole-selling agents selling tickets to Swarg).. Why not buy a toy for one’s child.. instead of paying Rs. 5000/- to the Pandit.. just to chant the Puja.. (Coconut + Fruits + Garland.. extra). In this age.. who will follow these EXPENSIVE CUSTOMS.
The Pandit will get out of job.. sooner or later.. as inflation (and awareness) will change people.. how they live their life. People are drinking more water in the US (to fill up)… as food prices have gone up (President George W. Bush’s legacy to mankind).. The basic necessity FOOD is expensive. People’s dietary habits will change.. and people will avoid un-necessary expenses.. The Pandit will go out of job in a century’s time. People will play CDs of Puja… and thats it. Why have a Pandit when one can have it on a CD. The Pandit and Agents who sell tickets to swarg.. must be rendered unemployed… sooner the better.
i hope you reply to my question Dastagir…..why ““Razakars’ murderous attacks on Hindus” part was completely missing?
Read the biography of Vidkun Quisling and see the parallels to it in the muslim psyche (especially as presented by dastagir) and behaviour in the indian subcontinent.
The wikipedia is a good source for this biography.
I dont believe in SMS Scholarship… or going by short-cuts like Wikipedia on everything. I believe in classical scholarship.. and arriving at conclusions after YEARS of reading… and after reading it from the perspective of various players. But i will reply.. in as fairly and dispassionate manner.. as possible.
The Razakars : A group of unemployed men., raised by a local leader of Hyderabad Deccan. It is alleged that it had the under-hand support of the Nizam. Basically the king wanted to retain his kingdom., against the winds of democracy (people’s power) that was sweeping the nation. Basing his argument (TITLE) on a legal technicality which favoured the Nizam (See Sir. Walter Moncton’s papers… an eminent Lawyer and Legal Advisor to the HE The Nizam). The Nizam was led the garden path… and the Nizam foolishly allowed himself to be led the garden path. Both were fools with exaggerated egos. The Razakars were nothing, but a band of charged young men… just parading.. saluting.. shouting slogans etc. If you compare the Razakars with the Indian Army… that would be quite a joke ! YET, The threat of Razakars was OVER-SOLD (Over-kill). It was a bluff, and all the parties knew the truth.
The Razakars were stupid young men… who committed some atrocities (325 casualties according to the supressed.. still buried in the Home Ministry.. Sunderlal Report). Still 325 people killed is very painful.. very painful.. and condemnable. But such was the mood of the moment.. these were unemployed mercenaries.. who were happy that they got a Uniform (Clothes to wear).. who were happy to raise slogans.. free food.. and a SENSE OF WORTH.. and purpose in life. (Even Pt. Nehru found a purpose in life.. and a job at age 50.. otherwise dissect his life.. and you find a wandering man.. looking for a purpose to his life). So these young men., did commit atrocities.. and 325 is the correct number.
Even 325 is condemnable. No doubt about it. Compare this horrible atrocity… (325)… with half a million muslim deaths.. The sheer scale.. the enormity. The deeds of the Indian Army.. what they did.. when they entered the state from points in Maharashtra (Khillary.. Sholapur).. and what they did along the way. How people settled scores.. in these villages where muslims were in a minority.. The Indian army entered from Bezwada (entry # 2).. and also from the Karnataka Side (Gulbarga, Raichur, Adoni).. From the 3 sides.. the professional Indian Army.. .with its tanks and ammunition… versus… a few misguided youngsters… armed with Lathis and WW-I 303 rifles.. What was the standing of Nizam’s army.. where was the ammunition. It was an army.. meant to play the band and salute. Even its chief., Maj. Gen. Eidrous., was more interested in his uniforms.. than the Army. To call it an Army.. is to over-blow it. It was a small batallion.. meant basically to salute.. and play the band.. .Bas.
If the Razakars were so strong and so invincible.. how did Hyderabad fall in 4 days ? (4 days and 13 hrs to be exact). Fact is., the Indian Army… the Hindu-Muslim divide., the air was full of hatred., exaggerated rumours., and people., ordinary people., settled SCORES. This was the ugly part. After having the horrible blood-bath in Punjab.. this man-made disaster could have been saved.. but.. Lord Mountbatten played a very JELLY-LIKE role both on the Punjab border (he preponed independence by a full year) left it without any planning / arrangement / and again with Hyderabad wasted 1 year… in the JELLY-LIKE wish-wash. Mountbatten’s Management and Administration caused great damage and loss of life… and after independence.. this was the man.. they decided to RETAIN.. Its like a girl retaining her boyfriend.. after marriage to another man ! It was so hypocritical. Mountbatten did not do his job neatly and sincerely…
Of course, the history of Operation Polo is very tragic… and very painful. The Indian Govt. would wish that people forget it., (like Modi wishes ppl forget 2002 Gujarat)., but history cannot be erased. It remains below the ocean bed.. for centuries.. its not so easy to delete it.. just cuz its inconvenient…
In PTH , one of most trusted Indians is A. G. NOORANI, who is well respected by RazaRumi and YLH
This is what he wrote:
“”Suppression of records is not only unethical but futile. More often than not, the foreign scholar will unearth it from archives in London or Washington, or in India itself. A German scholar has done just that. Margrit Pernau records in her book The Pa ssing of Patrimonalism that “while the occupation by the Indian army had been quick and had caused only relatively few casualties, the following communal carnage was all the more terrible. The Razakars had sown wind and reaped not only storm but a hu rricane which in a few days cost the lives of one-tenth to one-fifth of the male Muslim population primarily in the countryside and provincial towers”. (page 336, emphasis added, throughout. See review on page 75)””
Very clear words. Indian army “excesses” was there BUT NOT TO THE EXTENT that you are saying. Its your imagination. Nothing more!
The communal carnage was the main reason.
And half a million muslims dead is a PURE LIE!!!!
If that is true….where are ur sources?
“But to have huge crowds at an Urs is commonplace; nobody would turn around and check who’s saying this if you were to remark out loud in a crowd that this was a unifying factor. “Yeah, sure it is, what’s the big deal?” The guy who put ‘alta’ on my dead mother’s feet was a Muslim; what was I supposed to do, stop him? In the little dargah between the sweet shop and the electrician, everybody stops by before going on. The exact same crowd stops at the little temple under the trees just around the corner. It’s not the Bengalis, it’s everyone; Calcutta kind of calms you down about this, usually.”
A good way to live.
Dastagir: another set of rubbish from your intelligence. No religion is perfect. I agree Hinduism practised ‘apartheid’ – for your kind info, its got enormous dilution over the last 60 years thanks to wonderful work done on legislation as well as education. At the end of the day, education eradicates some of the greatest blind sins followed over generations. we are getting there.
What about you? is there any consensus in your community to rein in fundamental elements? is there any sensible debate on changes in the practices? IS THERE ANY DEBATE AT ALL?
Unfortunately there is no scope for discussion beyond the hijacked agenda of your mullas. When Islam was found, it was extremely modern for its time and hence wildly popular. People volunteered to take up the religion. Science, engineering, medicine, trade thrived around 800 – 1000 AD. What happened later was people like you grew arrogant and stopped basic human attitude ie evolution. Islam today is so restricted in every facet of life and you will not voice your willful dissent and moderate on several practices for the fear of ostracisation from mullah community
We have 2 rogues in pravin togadia and modi. You have 30,000 rogues sitting in darul u loom campus and dictating terms to you. Howzzat? We will take care of pravin togadia and modi – they never will have majority support. How about you?
You also have made another stupid gem //Without muslims.. can hinduism stand on its own for 24 hours ?// I would assume you have made this comment on an assumption that a hindu is incapable of ruling himself…we are happy without Shahenshah Aurangzeb Alamgir Sir…if muslims can stand without hindus in various countries why shouldn’t hindus stand without muslims? However if there is a multi lingual /religious society, why should only a HINDU rule? Merit should be the sole decision criteria isn’t it? I don’t think any of us in India crib about Dr Manmohan Singh running our lives for 2 terms now. We are very fortunate. Likewise, India was fortunate to have a person of Dr APJ’s stature as President. The question is ‘Are you comfortable to have a hindu as CM of Kashmir? ‘ Is there any will to trust a non muslim
Pls don’t give us lectures on Hinduism. We fully understand and recognize the flaws. Radical changes in the society over last 6 decades (intercaste marriages, increasing changing food habits et al) is a testimony to the fact that we are willing to correct.
How about you?
Prasad @ “Are you comfortable to have a hindu as CM of Kashmir”
I am comfortable having a hindu as CM of J&K… provided you are comfortable having a Muslim as CM of Gujarat.
PS : The population of muslims in Gujarat is 10%. Are they represented according to their population in jobs (from Chief Secretary down to the peon Class IV) ? Education (Colleges/IIM Ahmedabad/Govt. Medical /Engg Colleges in Gujarat). Let me compare the figures of Gujarat v/s. J&K. Hindus of J&K must have the same figures in jobs., as the Muslims of Gujarat. Cuz democracy is afterall a game of numers… Are only Gujaratis entitled to Asmita… J&K people have no asmitas… they give birth to.. and rear their daughters.. to be raped by Hindus… and their sons.. killed by the Hindu RSS wallas in Khaki trousers (Salaried RSS Chaddi Wala.. paid by the taxpayer). RSS workers are drawing a salary from the Govt (Centre +State) and yet raping muslims and killing muslims for sport ! How do the 2 reconcile ? Compare J&K with Gujarat. Compile a table. Bureaucracy. Academia. Loans disbursed… and other parameters… then have figures before you.. then compile a table.. and then reflect.
I already have the figures of the narrow minded Muslims. they have 1 university AMU (where 75% students in the medical college are hindu !)… but the ratio of narrow minded muslims., in the liberal and humane Hindus’ Banaras Hindu University is <1%.
A lesson in Grade X Civics is something., ground reality is something totally different. Hindus do have 2 rogues (Togadia & Modi) which you accept… but each of these rogues has a fan following of 20 crores each. So 2 x 20 crore = 40 crores. Thats the number of rogues you have to tackle.
RSS is the world's largest terrorist organisation with its institutionalised riot systems. This has been brought to the notice of even President Barack Obama.. who is now reading huge literature on RSS… as the real power-centre in India. Obama must be aware of RSS… and i am glad he is. India will not be destroyed by China or Pakistan… RSS will do the job… perfectly. It will turn India into a rubble. This fringe element (150 seats in the Lok Sabha out of 560.. and Ruling 7 States) will destroy India… Save Hinduism from Hindutva… Save India from RSS… Complacency… (and "i didnt see" attitude) will turn it into something worst than Afghanistan. The newly found 10% growth for 10% population is built on extremely weak foundations… Strengthening of foundation can happen only when there is SOCIAL JUSTICE at the ground level… (not in the Civics Book)
@YLH how can you say I cannot face facts and you can? Read “freedom at midnight” for unbiased reportage. The sequence of what happened is given there.
To all bengalis, (lots of them here), it was Mahatma Gandhi, “one man boundary force” that saved muslims in kolkata. His fast unto death, at hyderi house , beliaghata road “saved” the muslims in kolkata. Shaheed suhrawardy very conveniently appealed to mahatma to save muslims, or the bengali hindus are highly emotional people, the bloodshed that would have happened in kolkata would have put punjab to shame. The hindu renaissance started in bengal, as written elsewhere in PTH.I do respect the bengalis, as does every Indian. Now what communism has done is “allah malik hai.”
Talking of hyderabad, plzzzz dont tell me that the razakars were paragons of virtue. The Indian army did NOT do any atrocities in operation polo. It was the “common man” who was so tired of the atrocities of razakars, that what they sowed, they did reap a whirlwind. After the fall of hyderabad state. But by common people not indian army. Maybe the razakars did kill “only 325” people, but 10-20% of the adult male population of muslims did get wiped out in the aftermath. Point is learn to ‘respect’ the common man.
ever heard of abdul rehman antulay? he was congress chief minister of Maharashtra. The land of shivaji, and shivsena, and yes bal thackeray.
Har Marz Ki Dawa – Zinda Tilismath ? Hunh !
Yes.. Bar. A.R. Antulay was CM of Maharashtra… but after 13-14 months., Prabha Rau., Vasantdada Patil, Shalinitai Patil., and a lot of other Marathi leaders made his life hell. His Administration (Govt. in Indian terminology) was rendered paralysed. The bureaucrats started dis-obeying him. There were too many power-centres. Antulay had to resign on a Fund-Raising Scandal for the Congress Party (Indira Gandhi Awas Yojana.. or something like that).
Minority must have full rights… no discrimination. This applies to the minority(ies) in J&K., as much as it applies to the minority of Gujarat….
Dastagir: We recognise the power ‘wielded’ by RSS. Pls dont needlessly drum it up with needless propaganda against them that germinates out of your inane thoughts…nothing wrong in detailing facts but drumming it up is sheer recklessness
Incidentally a recent study shows RSS is finding it extremely difficult to get volunteers to their programmes…Obviously why should any sane thinking guy should have this ‘divine idea’ of making India a HINDU RASHTRA when he learns that India is also a country to 20 crore muslims and probably 5 crore christians, 2 crores sikhs etc… who all form the same gene pool irrespective of religious beliefs!!!
You have cleverly carpeted my q about your willingness to challenge stupid practices amongst your followers…..Any feedback?
Beating RSS is no solution to blindness in your community lets accept that
You write//I already have the figures of the narrow minded Muslims. they have 1 university AMU (where 75% students in the medical college are hindu !)… //
what does this convey? Hindus in general care two hoots about supremacy of their religion alone. That in no way means we dont pride ourselves of our heritage. WE JUST arent interested in antagonising other faiths period. Hindu students are peaceful I assume and hence AMU ( muslim management) gives access to students from this faith.
It is the same story in JMI Delhi as well. Why are muslims so backward bent not to pursue studies??? is it against their faith?? or Pravin togadia and Narendra modi ‘asmita’ are responsible for them not studying???
Dastagir //Yes.. Bar. A.R. Antulay was CM of Maharashtra… but after 13-14 months., Prabha Rau., Vasantdada Patil, Shalinitai Patil., and a lot of other Marathi leaders made his life hell //
your blind insistence on blaming others with everything wrong with your community is taking unbelievable proportions
Antulay got fired since he got embroiled in Cement scam.
wikipedia states //He resigned as Chief Minister of Maharashtra after the Bombay High Court convicted him of extortion on January 13, 1982. The court ruled that Antulay had illegally required Bombay area builders to make donations to Indira Gandhi Pristhan trust, one of several trust funds he had established and controlled, in exchange for receiving more cement than the quota allotted to them by the Government.//
Suresh kalmadi now will get fired since he has fucked CWG. Not because Vilayat medam wants to sack a hindu
Hindus are not raping Muslim girls in J&K nor is the RSS killing Muslims there.
You occasionally make a valid point and then bury it in a load of nonsense.
Prasad : You quoted me only in half (Selective Amnesia… i guess the RSS virus is inflicting the mainland / manuland ?)… Muslims (backward / narrow minded / evil.. ok.. agreed) have 1 Govt. Medical college at AMU : wherein 75% students are Muslim ! JMI Delhi has NO Medical College yet. Now give me the % of muslim students at Banaras Hindu University… Quick.. Fast…
I am against Hindu and Muslim University(ies). Period. I believe in social equity, though. Democracy, afterall is a game of numbers. It pains me when i see that Muslims (14% official / 18-19% unofficially) have <2% in IAS&Allied, none in IB & RAW, <1 in IITs / IIMs, Loans disbursed, pattas disbursed.. and other spoils of state. If Muslims are 14% official or 18-19% unofficial… ground reality should REFLECT the reality of the society we live in. Our institutions MUST reflect the society we live in… You have <1% for 20% of the population… That means something is wrong. I have written on this endlessly… and there is no point writing more… I wrote so clearly…. All minorties must have full rights and no discrimination (open or between the lines) be they in J&K or Gujarat.
Look at the top posts in J&K… All occupied by Hindus (Dogras)… All top businesses… Properties… Assets ! Compare it with the Muslims of Gujarat… I told you.. make a spread-sheet.. and compare J&K with Gujarat… and reach your own conclusions… and/or if you have character., you will, with your own hand… write the truth on this very column…. Provided you have character and integrity… Attachment to truth.. and detachment from prejudice.
har marz ki dawa….. zinda tilismath.
Look at the top posts in J&K… All occupied by Hindus (Dogras)… All top businesses… Properties… Assets ! Compare it with the Muslims of Gujarat
My point exactly. BECAUSE of this, the kashmiri pandits were wiped out of their land. Now last I heard the muslims are still there in gujarat.
90 % muslims wanted Pakistan so after partition 90% should have gone to Pakistan. Then the muslim population component in India would have been only 0.7%. And it should have remained at that.
Muslims are entitled to only a 0.7% share in Republic of India.
Kashmir is hindu land snatched by muslims through deceit and violence over 600 years.
All top posts in J&K are not occupied by Dogras. Few of them are. Please be accurate when you post something.
“The hindu renaissance started in bengal, as written elsewhere in PTH.I do respect the bengalis, as does every Indian.”
I wouln’t necessarily call it hindu renaissance. I think it’s better to call it Indian renaissance. W. C. Bannerjee (first President of Congress), Tagore, S. N. Bose, J. C. Bose, Netaji, and many others weren’t necessarily working for the hindus. However, it is true that many of the others (Ram Mohon Roy, Vidyasagar, Vivekananda etc., along with others from other parts of India) reformed the hindu society to an extent that eventually modern Hindu code bill could be adopted by Nehru after independence.
Incidentally, I wish someone tough (say, like, Vidyasagar, who was under many death threats) reformed the muslim personal laws as well. Indian government would not introduce legislation to bring the muslims into the modern fold of personal laws for fear of antagonising — I must admit — the muslims themselves (remember Shah Bano?). This is one of the main reasons why a muslim university has to have a substantial number of hindu students (not that I am saying it’s bad) but a hindu university (say, BHU) does not. I personally think that the responsibility of improving the situations of muslims, especially in a democratic set-up like in India, rests largely on the muslims as well (I am not saying that there are no other impediments).
I would sincerely want the muslim personal laws (which are presently according to Sharia) to be modernized as a first step. What say you, Dastagir? Would you support this like I do and mobilize the muslims? Or would you continue to blame everyone else?
….And, would you, like I would, like to see the Mullahs allow the FULL implementation of the Right to Education Act? Or in this instance too it is the ‘hindu-dominated’ government which is to blame?
Dastagir //You quoted me only in half (Selective Amnesia… i guess the RSS virus is inflicting the mainland / manuland ?)… Muslims (backward / narrow minded / evil.. ok.. agreed) have 1 Govt. Medical college at AMU : wherein 75% students are Muslim ! JMI Delhi has NO Medical College yet. Now give me the % of muslim students at Banaras Hindu University… Quick.. Fast…//
You the preacher of all things wrong with your community on others should come with the figure. Why should I…and further have you heard something called MERIT??
Sir, you are such a well read and wise man. Why are you so negative? Why the obsession with hating Hindus as well as with living in the past?
Maybe I am just a immature person, but if I had to evaluate a 1000 years of history I would have felt that Hindu’s in India are entitled to feeling more resentment. After all the Muslim minority ruled large parts of this country for hundreds of years. The wanton destruction that they unleashed on hundreds of temples can still be witnessed across rural Maharashtra in form a mutilated temples and statues. (I don’t know about other parts of India)
But we need to move on. People who committed those heinous deeds are dead and gone and the people who suffered are dead and gone too! So who are we to judge or take offense?
A person like you would be a great asset to the Muslim community and the country if you decided to encourage younger people to study and participate positively in India’s growth. A NGO in Mahim coaches Muslim girls from under privileged backgrounds to appear for IAS. Two years ago they got their first success and now the enrollment in really increasing as the girls have a role model. Perhaps you too can start off something like that.
Like someone said earlier….does ANYONE remember a small word in english language called MERIT? The muslims were ruling for 1000 years, why suddenly they became so backward? NO merit? I shudder to think of old times when these retards were ruling over the most talented community on this planet.
Do you ever care to check the veracity of your blabber. Where did you get this fact most of government posts are occupied by Dogras. I am a Dogra and the biggest resentment in the mind of Dogras is the disproportionate spending on the Kashmir and over-representation of Kashmir in government jobs and development jobs. Even for the same job of daily wagers , Kashmiri daily wagers get more salary than daily wagers in Jammu. Since J&K does not have much industry government is a large employer and Dogras have suffered huge discrimination. Most people in Jammu want to have a separate state and want full integration with India but there is a fear that if J&K is divided into 3 states it may weaken India’s position in Kashmir even further.
Succinct summary although I wish the actual events of the 2 days had been captured by you as well. At least Suhrawardy’s reputation would have taken a beating in your eyes if you had.
Of course, nobody seriously argues for the fact that “Muslim League planned and executed the massacre of innocents in Calcutta”. Even Indian text books do not (I think) although they do demonise Jinnah for “instigating” it.
That said, the call to direct action was, in hindsight, one of the worst decision taken by the Man. Human casualties aside, post DA day, the J-man had no space to maneuver and was forced to accept anything that Mountbatten/the Congress proposed.
Thank you for that account. I wish you’d write more on this.
Read part 2. I say precisely the same thing.
Not my account. Verbatim account by my Dad. Other parts of it are in his ‘stream of consciousness’ style memoirs, now under extensive editing.