Ataturk’s Turkish Republic in Danger

Kemal Ataturk

Kemal Ataturk

Turkey is in the middle of a political crisis that has pitted the Islamic-rooted civilian government against the military, following reports of an alleged move by military leaders to overthrow the government. Ameen Izzadeen, who was in Turkey last week meeting journalists, civil society leaders and political activists, reports on the country’s changing socio-political scenario.

Is Turkey facing a military coup? No way, says a journalist whom I met in Istanbul, Turkey’s most populous city which reminds visitors and citizens of the country’s glorious Islamic past. During my conversation with journalists, academics, political activists and businessmen, I was shocked to hear them criticise Mustafa Kemal Ataturk, the father of modern Turkey. A few years ago, none dared criticize him in public or in conversation with outsiders. Things are changing in Turkey. History is being rewritten. Even the last Ottoman sultans whom the Kemalists — supporters of Mustafa Kemal and Turkey’s secular system — blamed for all the ills of Turkey in the early 20th century are being hailed as “good and honest leaders”. Media freedom has undergone a qualitative and quantitative change for the better. They are daring to speak now.”The army won’t be able to topple the government,” the journalist said. “If it does, it knows there will be public uprising and street protests,” he said.

“Can I quote you,” I asked him.
“No problem, go ahead,” he said.

But I told him that I would not mention his name, because I did not want any harm befall him.
A highly respected leader of the Fethullah Gulen movement, which emphasizes Islam’s universal love and tries to make Islam compatible with the country’s secular order, told me that a “quiet revolution is taking place” in Turkey, hundreds years ago a superpower reverently addressed as the Great Ottoman Empire.

The revolution is: A government elected by the people is daring to look into the eyes of the “deep state”, which, in Turkish political terminology, means a state within a state, while more and more people are discovering their Islamic roots, which the secular elite have been trying to erase for the past 86 years.
Turkey, where democracy had been often disturbed by regular military coups since the Republic was set up in 1923, is moving towards more democracy, with the government sending a message to the military that its role as a state within the state is ending.


The Turkish military, which has the world’s eighth largest Army, considers itself as the guardian of the republic. It is an important member of the “deep state” which believes that the responsibility to maintain the country’s secular character lies with it. The deep state, which, apart from military chiefs, comprises the westernized elite including top public servants and university dons, are largely Kemalists — supporters of Mustafa Kemal Ataturk, the father of modern Turkey and its first President. They were the people who drafted Turkey’s secular constitution and laws that bar Muslim women from wearing the head scarf in keeping with Ataturk’s vision of a modern republic.

Very little is known about Ataturk’s family background or what his faith was. Was he a Muslim or a Donmeh, a word used for a member of a secretive Turkish society? Donmehs are the descendants of the Ottoman era Jews who, along with their leader Sabbatai Zevi, converted to Islam in 1666 and took Muslim names but secretly followed their Jewish rituals. The orthodox Jewry, however, has condemned the Donmehs as heretic because they worshipped Sabbatai Zevi as the messiah and an incarnation of God.
“It is very difficult to identify a Donmeh in today’s Turkey because they have well assimilated into Turkish society and there is no difference between a Donmeh and a highly westernized Turkish Muslim,” a journalist from Turkey’s Cihan News Agency said. But he declined to answer my question whether Ataturk was a Donmeh.

A Google search, however, produced a number of web articles on Ataturk’s alleged Jewish links.
Ataturk was an officer in the Ottoman Army. Hailing from Salonika, the birthplace of Donmehs, he was one of the commanders who defeated the British and the French forces during the Gallipoli campaign in 1915. Later, he joined the Young Turk rebellion and played a key role in the military coup that overthrew Sultan Abdul Hameed II at a time when Western powers such as Britain and Zionists had deeply penetrated into the corridors of power in Istanbul. The Zionists were particularly angry with the Sultan, for he refused to meet the father of the Zionist movement, Theodore Herzl, when he visited Istanbul in 1901. The Zionists also tried to pay him money and buy Jerusalem, which was then under Ottoman rule.

The Sultan told one of his officials, “Advise Dr. Herzl not to take any further steps in his (Zionist) project. I cannot give away even a handful of the soil of this land (Palestine) for it is not my own, it belongs to the entire Islamic nation. The Islamic nation fought jihad for the sake of this land and had watered it with their blood. The Jews may keep their money and millions. If the Islamic Khilafah (state) is one day destroyed then they will be able to take Palestine without a price! But while I am alive, I would rather push a sword into my body than see the land of Palestine cut and given away from the Islamic State. This is something that will not be. I will not start cutting our bodies while we are alive.”

This part of history has failed to find its way into Turkey’s curriculum. Instead, officially recognized history books are full of blame for Sultan Abdul Hameed. They have painted him as as a vicious tyrant.
But senior journalists and academics whom I met during my week-long visit to Turkey say things are changing and people are beginning to see Sultan Abdul Hameed as an honest and pious leader and as a victim of the British and Zionist sinister schemes.

Ataturk later abolished the Caliphate (Sultanate) and with the help of the rival parliament in Ankara, he became the founder President of the Turkish Republic in 1923. He changed the country’s Islamic character and confined Islam to mosques. Thousands of Islamic scholars were either banished or killed. The Arabic script was replaced with the Latin alphabet — a move that made 99 percent of the Turkish population illiterate overnight. The move, however, helped the westernized elite to dominate politics and covet top positions in public administration and the military. Eighty six years after the setting up of the republic, the elite who still continue to live with their erroneous belief that Turkey belongs to them feel threatened. The signs are ominous.

During my stay in Turkey last week together with veteran Sri Lankan journalist Latheef Farook on an invitation from the Cihan News Agency, a major political upheaval was taking place after a newspaper exposed a secret military document that gave details of a plot to overthrow the civilian government led by Recep Tayyip Erdogan and discredit the popular Fethullah Gulen movement, which is regarded as the power behind Turkey’s current Islamic renaissance.

The exposé came against the backdrop of the arrest of several ex-military and civil servants last year for their alleged role in a plan to topple the democratically-elected government of Erdogan, who is the leader of the AK Party (Justice and Development Party). Erdoagan’s Islamic credentials are an anathema to the deep state, which feels it is fast losing its place in Turkish politics.


Erdogan, who, as a teenage boy, sold lemonade and sesame bread on Turkish streets before he graduated from Istanbul’s Marmara University, was a hardline Islamist. In the past, the military has toppled several Islamic-leaning governments. Former prime minister Adnan Menderes was tried in a military court and hanged. Another popular Islamic-leaning president, Turgut Ozal, died mysteriously. The official version was he died of a heart attack. But others say he was poisoned.

A controversial poem by Erdogan ruffled many feathers a few years ago and continues to hang over his administration like Damocles’ sword. Here are the first lines of that poem.
“The mosques are our barracks
The domes our helmets
The minarets our bayonets and
The faithful our soldiers…”

Of late, largely due to the influence of the Gulen movement, Erdogan has distanced himself from his hardline Islamic views and is taking Turkey towards more democracy in an effort to gain full membership of the European Union. His moves towards more democracy have apparently irked the secular elite, for whom more democracy means more Islam. The secularists accuse him of having a secret agenda to turn Turkey into a religious state. But Erdogan is emerging strong. He is presiding over a government that has made Turkey one of the fastest growing economies of the world.

Last week, his government dared to arrest Colonel Dursun Cicek, who allegedly signed the military document that called for the toppling of Erdogan’s government. On Wednesday, a court in Istanbul ordered his release, pending further investigations. In another move, parliament passed legislation to curb the powers of the military court in civil matters. The government said that such a measure was necessary to meet EU membership requirements.

These moves have added to the tension between Erdogan’s government and the military, the self-assumed guardian of the secularist system.


Part 2:

Young couples smooching in public, midnight discos, belly-shaking scantily-dressed female dancers, mini skirts, tight jeans and alcohol remind a visitor to the Turkish capital Ankara that he is not in a conservative Muslim country. Though the call for prayer five times a day blares from the loudspeakers of Ankara’s grand mosque, the general impression is that Islam, the religion of 99 percent of the Turkish people, is not standing as tall as the 88-metre minarets of the mosque, which is one of the largest in the world.

In the marketplace of Ankara, searching for Islam appears to be a task tougher than finding a needle in a haystack, though a few women in head scarves remind a visitor that Muslims also live in Turkey, which for more than six hundred years had been the standard bearer of the Islamic caliphate till it lost its Islamic identity in political coups and schemes engineered by the West and the Zionists during the late 19th and early 20th centuries.


Why is Ankara like a liberal western city, in contrast to Istanbul, my first port of call during a week-long visit to this historic country, courtesy the Cihan News Agency? My Turkish friend tells me that it is because Ankara is the spring of secularism. It is from here that secularism flowed to other parts of the country. It is virtually a secularist colony. To find Islam, one has to penetrate the wall the secularists have built preventing Islam from coming into public life.

“You know, during Prophet Muhammad’s time, Arabia was like the present day Turkey. The good and the evil existed side by side. But eventually good triumphed over evil. This will happen in Turkey soon,” my friend, a practising Muslim, said.

Elsewhere in Ankara, on June 25, the first day of the Islamic month of Rajab, at a guesthouse run by members of the Fethullah Gulen movement, more than one hundred fasting men gathered in a big hall waiting for the call for prayer at dusk. After breaking their fast, they prayed Maghrib (the Muslim prayer at dusk) and listened to the recitation of Quran by a senior member before they held a meeting. At the end of the meeting, they played a DVD on a big white screen. It showed a man in turban and black robe over his western suit giving a sermon from a mosque pulpit. During the sermon he broke down and wept. So did the congregation. It is this man, Fethullah Gulen who is bringing Islam back to Turkey’s secular society. He says he is no opponent of the secular system. He believes Islam can co-exist with secularism, Islam is compatible with democracy and Islam is complementary to modernity. He condemns terrorism and advocates peace through patience and dialogue. For Mr. Gulen, modernity does not mean blind adoption of everything west. His interpretation of modernity comes with respect for human life, decent behaviour, human values and personal integrity.

According to Turkish academics Bulent Aras and Omer Caha, Mr. Gulen seeks to construct a Turkish-style Islam, rekindle the Ottoman glory, Islamize Turkish nationalism, recreate a legitimate link between the state and religion, and emphasize democracy and tolerance. So some call him a modern Ottoman.
Secularism entered Turkey and entrenched itself largely as a result of two factors – one internal and the other external. The internal factor emerged during the early 20th century in the form of pressure exerted by the Young Turks led by pro-Western elites who were riding high then because of a series of humiliation the Ottoman Empire had suffered in wars with Russia and other European powers. They believed Islam was the cause of many ills that befell the empire. The external factor was conditions imposed by the victors of World War I. The July 24, 1923 Lausanne Treaty — which Turkey was forced to negotiate to retain at least a truncated part of the vast Ottoman territory — required the republic’s first government to take measures to protect minority rights. In other words, this treaty ended the special place Islam enjoyed in Turkey during the Ottoman period and even briefly after its collapse. Mustafa Kemal Ataturk, the founder of the Turkish Republic introduced a series of laws banishing Islam from public life.

Eighty-six years of secularism may have protected the minorities, who form a mere one percent of the Turkish population or less than that, but the policy has done more harm to Muslims. Even today, Muslim women do not have the right to wear head scarves to schools, both public and private, or to any government office. Girl students removing their headscarves at the gates of universities are a common sight in Turkey. Last year, the Islamic-rooted government led by the AK (Justice and Development) Party passed legislation to permit the headscarf in universities and public offices. The law was approved by President Abdullah Gul, who was one time the foreign minister of the AKP government of Prime Minister Recep Tayyip Erdogan. But the secularists took the matter before the Constitutional Court which held the law unconstitutional.

If Ankara is the fort of secularism, Istanbul appears to be the door to Islam’s return. It is here, we saw mosques brimming over with the faithful. Men and women attend prayers at Sultanahmet (Blue) mosque, Sultan Fatih and Sulemaniyeh mosques. The crowd was unbelievably large at the Abu Ayub al-Ansari mosque – a mosque that houses the tomb of the companion who shared his house with the prophet when he came to Medina as a refugee. In this city of mosques, more mosques are being built. Turkey has some 85,000 mosques. Headscarf-clad women, young and old, are rampant at shopping malls. People seem to be fast discovering Islam – albeit a Turkish version, a moderate version.

The Gulen movement’s stamp is visible in the rise of Islam. Mr. Gulen, some say is a Sufi, a mystic. But he denies he is one, though his teachings have incorporated the fundamentals of Sufism, which is a form of Islam based on extreme love for God and all his creatures. Some say he has founded a new tariqah, a new Sufi order, but he denies this also, though it is no secret he has been influenced by the works of Bediuzzaman Said Nursi, a religious scholar who resisted Ataturk’s moves to confine Islam to mosques and spent much of his life in jail. The Bediuzzaman, a title which means ‘wonder of the time’, authored the Risale-i Nur Collection, a 6,000-page commentary on Quran. Although he also denied he was a Sufi, he was a great admirer of Mevlana Jalaluddin Rumi. The Bediuzzaman not only studied Islam but also excelled in natural sciences.


Similarly, Mr. Gulen, who now lives in the United States, is well versed in Islamic studies as well as modern philosophies. He was included in the Newsweek magazine’s list of the 21st century’s top one hundred intellectuals. The irony is that some of his critics from the secular camp say he is a CIA agent.

Born on April 27, 1941, Mr. Gulen has more than five million active followers across Turkey, a country of 76 million people. Among his followers are university students, journalists, professionals and businessmen. They claim they are the modern version of the prophet’s companions (Sahabas).

They run schools, universities, hostels, student homes, charity groups, newspapers including Turkey’s largest-selling newspaper (Zaman), television stations (both local and foreign) and Islamic banks. Their overseas schools in 140 countries, including Sri Lanka, are open to both Muslim and non-Muslim students and Gulen followers say every student is treated equally and every belief system given equal prominence.

These activities are winning the Gulen movement more converts but the group has become a problem for the secularists, including the military. The secularists and top generals in the military believe they are the guardians of Turkey’s secular system and regard every Islamist as an enemy of the secular state. But very little have the secularists gathered in the form of evidence to ban the Gulen movement, though Mr. Gulen had been charged with sedition in the past.

However, last month, a newspaper published an alleged military document which gave details of a plan to discredit the Gulen movement and the AK Party. The plan envisaged planting of bombs and explosives in AK party offices and Gulen movement hostels and setting the stage for a military takeover and the banning of the Gulen movement.

Critics say the Gulen movement members and Islamists, especially the AKP supporters, are quietly infiltrating the military and the courts, two institutions dominated by the secularists, with the intention of turning Turkey into an Islamic state one day. They say Mr. Gulen’s message of tolerance and forgiveness is only skin deep beyond which lies a grandiose scheme of Islamisation.


DISCLAIMER:  These views don’t reflect the views of PTH.



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12 responses to “Ataturk’s Turkish Republic in Danger

  1. Adnann Syed

    The Kamalite Turkish version of secularism is at best, an extremely badly implemented version of secularism. Maybe the way selective secularism has been practiced in Muslim majority countries is the reason the majority Muslim population is so gun-shy about secularism.

    From what I have seen in Turkey, the country essentially was governed by a so called Modernist cabal of intellectuals and army/civilian brass, that seek to impose its own way of thinking on the whole country. Seperation of mosque and state does not mean population is not completely free to practice its faith. Religion is a huge part of the lives of the population, and Turkish way of Kamalists was to strip it away in public life, all in the name of secularism.

    And so started shameful machinations of its army, series of coups, and a failed facade to keep Turkish brand of secularism alive.

    It is remarkable that a religious leaning political party is introducing the basic tenet of secularism back into Turkish political process; that the population has every right to practice their faith in private and public, as long as they don’t seek to impose it upon others by using powers of the state.

    Turkey is truly a one of the most impressive economies among the world. Prime Minister Erdogan is leading one of the most stable and popular democracies into the twenty first century, and I hope this process will only continue; not just for Turkey, but to show the Muslim world that secularism is indeed a model that will work and prosper a Muslim nation.

  2. ylh

    I think this (the article) is a superficial analysis. It assumes that the Kemalist revolution was the exact opposite or is mutually exclusive to the rise of the neo-Islamic but secular democrats in form of AKP.Infact everything that Turkey is today is largely because of Ataturk and his policy. The truth is that perfect secularism of the kind that tolerates dissent could not work in a Muslim majority society then and for probably another few decades. Pakistan is a perfect example with Jinnah’s liberal secularism falling because Jinnah, unlike Ataturk, did not impose his secular ideals by force.

    This has been discussed before and has riled up people who don’t want to read history without blinkers. The truth is that Turkish Nationalism in its first phase 1919-1929 was a Muslim nationalism of sorts in so much as that it was the Muslim inhabitants of Anatolia, Thrace and Kurdistan who had joined together to preserve their state as Ottoman Empire burnt down. Ataturk deployed Islam through out the war of independence to unite his followers against Greeks and their allied backers. He did so unabashedly and to terrific effect. The treaty of Laussane recognized this basic fact and exchange of population between Greece and Turkey on mainly the basis of religious identity. It may also be pointed out Greek orthodox citizens were forbidden from holding as many as 30 main professions in Turkey by a law passed by Turkish Grand National Assembly furing Ataturk’s time.

    By creating a homogenously Muslim nation out of multicultural Ottoman Empire, the Kemalist revolution created opportunities that hitherto did not exist for the largely agrarian and military minded Muslims.

    It was in 1928 -when Turkish Republic was firmly established- that Ataturk set about re-defining what it meant to be Turk. While his population was largely an ethnic mix and were known as Turks only because they were Muslims (Turk and Muslim were interchangeable and Ataturk’s own speeches use the words alternately during the revolution) Ataturk defined Turkish nationalism on the basis of Turkoman identity …tracing it back to Turk and Tartar tribes who had converted to Islam …

    Then having super-imposed this Central Asian identity on the Turks, he began to Europeanize…changing the alphabet, disestablishing religion politically etc. However one thing that is often forgotten is that he also tried to “Turkify” the Quran and Islam. He tried, unsuccessfully, to use the old Hanafi Islamic doctrine to decree that Quran would be recited in Turkish and Azan would be given in Turkish. He very much saw Islam as the national religion of the Turks (though not the state religion of Turkey which he abolished in 1928 thankfully) who had lived with Islam and who had become indistinguishable from Islam. Interestingly the crescent and the star- universal symbols of Islam- are celestial symbols used by the Turkomen tribes from Pre-islamic times. This is how closely linked Islam is to Turkish national identity that even their symbols had begun to symbolize Islam. Ataturk saw this clearly and sought to deploy it to the service of the Turkish republic. The Turkish republic was thus never secular in the western sense of the word- Kemalism’s point of departure was that the state sought to control and dominate faith…and was not impartial to it. Accordingly Imam Hatip schools were opened – or as we would say in Pakistan Imam Khateeb schools- during Ataturk’s regime to train Hocas (mullahs) to preach a state sanctified Islam.

    The one form of Islam Ataturk tried to crush completely however was Sufiism. A practical and worldly man (recall Allama Iqbal’s poem about “Mujahid-e-Turki”) Ataturk saw in Sufi orders all the problems plaguing Turkey. He saw Khanqahs and Sufi orders as dens of irrationality and spiritual mumbo jumbo. He saw Sufi Islam – more than any other form- to be completely incompatible with the Turkey he was building.

    So what was the net result of his efforts- he managed to singlehandedly bring up a largely agrarian pre-industrial population into the Industrial age. He also swung the pendulum so far out that the Islamic democrats of Turkey today speak of secularism with a glib tongue. AKP- rooted in Islam- is a secular party. This is Ataturk’s achievement. This is why Jinnah admired Ataturk so much and described him as one of the greatest men in modern times and the greatest Musalman of the age. This is why a few months before his death, Iqbal wrote to Muslims of East Africa to pray for the long life of two men who had a lot to contribute to Muslims… one was Ataturk. The other was Jinnah.

    A future historian will record the founding the Republic of Turkey as the starting point of the renaissance reformation and enlightenment in the Islamic World. A milestone on this road would be the emergence of Secular and yet Islamist AKP.

  3. Another typically predictable attack by those with an Islamist mindset aginst its opponents by calling them the creation of Zionist and Western forces. Sounds familiar??

    Btw, what’s the nationality of the author?

  4. Cemil

    Typical of this author to try and critise Ataturk by calling him a jew…
    TAke a look at your own country, if you had someone like Ataturk do what he did in his life, maybe your people would have a chance, but instead they think religion is everything and your people live in a mess.

    Jelously is a curse, and the author reaks of it…..go back to reading your Koran and hope for the best…i can put my money on it you WONT get it!!!

    Religious people = uneducated idiots!

  5. ylh


    Let me point out that the author is not Pakistani.So your “look at your own country” is unfortunate.

    Most Pakistanis admire Ataturk and we have some of main high ways and avenues named after Kemal Ataturk. Everyone from Jinnah to Musharraf admired Ataturk…and Jinnah described him as the greatest man of the age.

    Providence gave Ataturk close to two decades to re-model Turkey. Our Jinnah died in 13 months and we are trying to revive his secular legacy in Pakistan.

    I have myself written articles on Ataturk, and I hope you will read them and see that we admire him as much you do.

  6. PMA

    YLH: It is always refreshing to read your commentary on Ataturk. Other than Jinnah, Ataturk is a finest leader of the twentieth century Muslim World. We must be equally proud of both of them. In my recent travels I came across half a dozen young Turkish doctors working in a European country. After learning that I was a Pakistani, they invited me over to their table and spoke of their warm and friendly feelings towards Pakistan and their Pakistani brothers. Turks love Pakistan and Pakistanis.

    I also read your following comment with interest:

    “The one form of Islam Ataturk tried to crush completely however was Sufiism. A practical and worldly man (recall Allama Iqbal’s poem about “Mujahid-e-Turki”) Ataturk saw in Sufi orders all the problems plaguing Turkey. He saw Khanqahs and Sufi orders as dens of irrationality and spiritual mumbo jumbo. He saw Sufi Islam – more than any other form- to be completely incompatible with the Turkey he was building.”

    Sufi Islam which I have termed as “Shrine Culture” is one of the many reasons of the backwardness of our people. It is neither Islam nor a Sufi Way of Life. As said, it is a pure “mambo jumbo” designed to keep masses intoxicated with fumes of opium.

  7. yasserlatifhamdani


    Thanks for the encouragement as usual.

    My admiration for Ataturk is atleast as much as it is for Jinnah… indeed… it was at college through Andrew Mango’s book “Ataturk” that I discovered the great man in some depth … and then I recalled from my childhood hearing something about Pakistan’s founding father admiring him as well, which prompted me to read more on Jinnah as well…

    So in a way I was a “Ataturk-worshiping Secular Clown” before I became a “Jinnah-worshiping Secular Clown” to use SherryX’s vocabulary- see my article “Rebuttal to a Mullah of another Kind”.

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  10. What Turkey is experimenting now, a blend of secularism with Islam (not in religious but purely a politico-administrative sense) is what best suits the Islamic world of today.

    Unfortunately Islam in the first instance was given a shape of ‘fundamental’ Islam by the Mullahs who to a major extent even use it today as their ideological weapon to bring ordinary Muslims to their fold. And later it were the British imperialists who with their political and governmental hold intensified the religious sentiments of the mainstream to retain their grip over the people who were in every regard different to them (color, creed, region, language, culture, and above everything the soil itself) so they needed to strengthen divisions between different regions, different religions, different castes, biradris, so on and so forth.

    After demise of the British Empire, the US took over their position and did havoc to our strongly religious roots yet with a humane, liberal approach. This has been a major factor in the soil of Pakistan having accepted and absorbed so many faiths, so many religions, so many cultures and finally coming to the fold of Islam.

    In our recent history too, we did never experience a single case of Sunni Shia murders, Islamic Madrassas creating students who would take bombs and explode these devices destroying innocent men and property, even turning their own bodies to smithereens. All this is a product of US specialists of the NWO, a legacy of which we are now facing in today’s Pakistan.

    Ameen Izzadeen’s essay is an excellent write up on what is happening in today’s Turkey but am afraid of the time when it might turn up one day that Turkey did become Islamic, however, this Islam was not from Turkey’s own roots but emanated from the womb of American imperialism and after US disengaging herself from her phenomena of destabilizing Muslim countries (as it did in Iraq, in Afghanistan and is now doing in Pakistan) particularly the oil rich states of Central Asia, the supra-religionists of Turkey start repenting one day like our brothers in Jamat-e-Islami who too aligned at one time with the US mission of dismembering the Soviets (and who now feel repenting the way they were / have been ruthlessly misused against the Soviet infidels in the name of Islam).

    Another aspect which irks my mind is Mr. Fethullah Gülen, the Turkic multibillionaire who is spearheading the Gülen movement. If one would believe what Sibel Edmonds says in her interviews ( and ) he is a CIA man and this has been disclosed during court proceedings in which Gülen’s application for a Green Card has been rejected on basis of the evidence produced in the court (that his movement has been funded by the CIA).

    Nayyar Hashmey

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