Civil Society Political Islam & Shariah Law

This is a thoughtful guest contribution for publication here at the Pak Tea House. We may not agree with all the arguments presented but this could be an excellent vehicle for engendering debate on these issues. (Ed. Raza Rumi)

Bradistan Calling is a proud Pakistani in Bradford, West Yorkshire (Little Pakistan).


In order to understand the development of Islamic theocracy in Pakistan, we have to understand the different political forces present in pre partition North West India. It is prudent to restrict the analysis to right wing Muslim parties as, regardless of their stance on independent Pakistan; in post partition political spectrum ring wing became the mainstream. The left wing parties (nationalist and communists alike) were pushed to margins either banned from elections or went into collective involuntary underground to escape persecution and torture of their cadre by American backed civil and military dictatorships of the elite.

Pakistani left wing consisted of Muslim cadre of communist party of India, red shirt pushtun of afghan and Pakistani tribal North West frontier headed by “frontier Gandhi” Ghaffar khan a close ally of MK Gandhi of India.

Muslim right wing had three distinct groups:
Unionists: this was a lose grouping of Muslim feudal elite loyal to British crown.Post partition unionists amalgamated with Muslim league. Smaller grouping of Shia, ismaili and ahmediya Muslims from princely states of north India were associated with ML but in later decades they formed their separate religious entities.

Muslim league: a party formed in 1906 by Muslim nobility to counter the Hindu influence of Indian national congress of Gandhi. ML changed its stance from loyalist to separate homeland for Muslims in North West of India in1940s. ML was headed by MA Jinnah a British educated and whisky drinking secular ismaili Muslim barrister, although its worth pointing out that Jinnah was the defense counsel for a Punjabi Muslim fanatic ailmuddin who killed the Hindu publisher rajpal for publishing the biography of prophet Muhammad probably Jinnah wanted to use the sentiments of common Muslims for his religion-political cause of Muslim separatism in British India.

Nationalist Islamists:

These parties were different in their character from Muslim nationalist leaders in congress who advocated for a secular united India. Jamal Islami (JI) and Jamiat Ulema Islam (JUI) were and still are the biggest Islamist parties in Pakistan. Pre partition they advocated pan Islamic caliphate of all countries under colonial rule. Labeling Pakistan as kafiristan and Jinnah kafir azam (great infidel). Post independence they captured the main ideological ground in the name of defending Islamic identity and statehood of country of pure (Pakistan in Persian language). Abu Ala Mududi the head of Jamat Islami was a theologian and ideologue not just for Indian Muslims but had strong influence and links with Egyptian Muslim brotherhood and salafi whaabi dynasty of al-Saud in Arabia, which helped jihad financially and in manpower in later history of Pakistan and Afghanistan. JUI had and still runs the biggest network of madrasah seminaries for Taliban (student in Arabic) in Pakistan .the main patrons of JUI were Saudi Arabia Libya and Iraq.

The history of shariah  in Pakistan
1947 the independence of India was stained with blood and rape of millions of refugees trying to reach Muslim Pakistan or Hindu India. Gangs of Muslim and Hindu and Sikh fanatics killed and raped their own neighbours.

1948 saw the outbreak of Kashmir war, when Jinnah frustrated by non obedience of English officers order the fanatical pushtun tribesmen from Waziristan and Khyber to take Kashmir in the name of Islam, sadly Jinnah died of T.B without completing the Jihad. 1949 Pakistan legislative assembly amended the 1935 interim constitution to include Koran and Sunnah of prophet as the supreme law.

1951 saw the killing of the first prime minister in Rawalpindi at the hands of one of the tribesmen. Military officers, newspaper editors, communist leaders and frontier Gandhi were imprisoned and charged with treason, in order to curtail the politics of leftwing. Martial law was imposed in city of Lahore after the torture of followers of ahmadiyya (who believed in 19th century prophet Mahdi Messiah).

1950s was a period of disenfranchising the majority province of east Bengal where leftwing Hindu middleclass was 15% of the population and a Muslim cleric mullah bashahni was the head of political alliance of communists and Maoist peasants. The ruling elite was afraid of the majority. The martial law of Sandhurst educated dictator field marshal Ayub khan (the poster boy for American administrations in cold war era) banned independent newspapers and put left leaning politicians in jail and many communist sympathisers like hasan nasir were killed in torture cells of Lahore fort while the Islamists were free to preach and practice whatever they wanted.

Under pressure from Kennedy/Johnson administrations ayub khan introduced reforms in family laws of Muslim personal code, making it necessary for husband to seek written permission for a second marriage from the first wife. Women could sue for divorce and family inheritance in civil courts. Family planning was allowed. US aid was used to open girl’s schools in rural areas. All this infuriated the clergy.

The proverbial last nail in the coffin was the presidential election of 1965, local government councilors were supposed to vote for president ayub khan without any serious challenge. The left and the secular parties in East and West Pakistan nominated Fatima Jinnah, a spinster elderly sister of late Jinnah, as a consensus compromise candidate because she had popular support. The mullahs declared woman candidate for presidency un-Islamic.

In referendums involving sitting military dictators, like Zia ulhaq in 1984 or musharaf in 2002 and 2007, vote rigging and horse-trading of the turncoat members are used to turn a unfavourable electorate into a best possible result. There was a massive protest but, like 1984 siachen and 1999 kargil operations, military started a misadventure in Kashmir to divert the attention.

September 1965 war left economy in total collapse and military in ruin. American help was at hand, but economic aid, much like the 1980s afghan jihad and 9/11 war on terror package, was directed at the industrial and feudal families rather then the poor. The Poor got “low grade” Mexican Corn (Folklore still remembers as “too hard to chew”), and donkey(a symbol of stupidity) carts with American flags in their necks.  These  dictators (Ayub, Zia and Musharaf) and their cronies are scornfully known in street lexicon as “Ali Baba and forty thieves”. Every major crisis since then (be that burning of Al Aqsa mosque, siege of Mecca by militants or satanic verses and Danish Cartoons, and 2008 releasing soon Dutch films on Islam and American novel on child bride of Muhammad) mobs charged with religious zeal always burn symbols of America (American Cultural Centres, Citi Bank, KFCs and McDonalds) in Pakistan. 1960s was a time of war in Vietnam, Socialist marches in European capitals while in American the civil rights movement was making big strides under the leadership of martin Luther king. Students, felt that they can take on the Mullahs and the Military, brought the country to a standstill.
The Great  Game:

Politicians were divided on geographic/ethnic lines. Punjabis were led by  charismatic Sindhi feudal zulfikar Ali Bhutto, educated in Eton oxford and Berkeley. Bhutto had invented the slogans of Islamic socialism and food shelter and clothing for all citizens. In Bengal  mujeeb rehman an ex socialist was leading a campaign of autonomy from the feudal/bureaucratic structures of Pakistan. Parting shot of dictators is usually an autobiography (“friends, not masters” by Ayub, “In the line of fire” by musharaf, sadly Zia exploded before/due to “a case of exploding mangoes” ghost written by Muhammad Hanif 2008) lamenting the abortion of their “true” legacy for greater Pakistan. Election resulted in majority Bengali parliament. The Punjabi army killed and raped thousands in Bengal. In December 1971 India invaded to strike a humiliating defeat and Bangladesh declared independence. Bhutto became the leader of remaining Pakistan.

1970s saw the nationalization of industries and piece meal reforms. In 1973 Bhutto gave Pakistan its first consensus democratic constitution. compromises made with feudals and Islamists in cities (among small traders and armed student wing JI)forcibly marginalised  the silent majority.

Islamisation measures initiated by Bhutto (secular, whisky loving, and playboy) were supported by Saudi Arabian king Faisal’s generous visa policy for Pakistani labourers and military personnel who wanted to earn quick petro-dollars. Friday was declared weekly holiday, Sale/purchase of alcohol was banned to Muslims and restricted to Christian and Hindus via government permit only.Hotels with casinos clubs and discotheques were shut down.

The Law that declared ahmadiyya (sect of muslim messiah) as non Muslims. shifted the society from socialist reforms to demand for shariah. An agitation fueled by CIA dollars and Islamist manpower destabilised Bhutto . American administration was unhappy at the deal for French nuclear reprocessing plant and feared  Bhutto was making “Islamic bomb” to avenge the humiliation by India.The martial law of 1977 was a copycat of the 1973 Chilean coup by General Augusto Pinochet at the behest of USA. Bhutto was hanged in 1979 by the Islamist military dictator Zia ul haq after a show trial which was termed as judicial murder (“If I am assassinated” by ZA Bhutto 1979)

Islamist General Zia unleashed state terror on politics. Hundreds of thousands of political activists, lawyers’ students’ leaders were imprisoned. Thousands were given Islamic punishment of flogging or hanged at the orders of military courts.1979 invasion of Afghanistan by soviet troops made Zia the most trusted ally of USA, Britain and Saudi Arabia. Billions of dollars in foreign exchange, latest military equipment and thousands of young fighters from Arab countries poured into Pakistan to fight the jihad against the evil soviet atheists.

The shariah began with the law of evidence where the testimony of two pious Muslim women was only considered equal to one male, thus declaring a woman only half a human in all matter of law. Hadood laws prescribed the Islamic justice of public flogging for consumption of Alcohol, cutting hands for robbery and most draconian of all was the stoning to death for adultery, even a victim of rape had to provide testimony of four pious male Muslim witnesses in order to prove her innocence. The case of a blind girl charged for adultery, who gave birth to “her sin” child while the rapist got Scot free due to lack of four male pious Muslim witnesses, got international publicity.

Muslims who did not pray during office hours or did not fast and anyone caught eating during the fasting of Ramadan faced prosecution. Zakat was compulsorily deducted from Muslim account holders in all banks, this created the biggest Shia demonstration Pakistan has ever seen. Shia sect refused to comply with shariah being imposed by general Zia and his Saudi mentors. Shias(20% in population) contemplated starting a civil disobedience, backing down after pressure from Shia clergy of Iranian revolution. Zia fearing a belligerent Iran and hostility from educated shias within military and civil bureaucracy exempted Shia from zakat deduction.

Iran created the shia militants (movement for enforcing the laws of imam jaffar), Saudi Arabia and Iraq responded by arming the “soldiers of companions of Mohammed”, an organisation openly calling shia as non Muslims and  declaration of Sunni law in line with Saudi clergy.

While the sectarian killings continued by the two sides, Zia turned his attention to minorities (Ahmedis, Christians,Hindus) and forced them to declare their faith on identity documents and separate election system was devised for them(a bit like apartheid). Ahmedis were banned from preaching or observe Islamic rituals of sermon prayers, fasting or even greeting each other by Muslim salutation. They were ordered to remove all Muslim signage from their mosques. Anyone who did not comply with these rules suffered prison, fines and public flogging. The Ahmedi caliph and his clergy fled to London to save their lives, while militant groups turned their guns toward common ahmedi and christian who were living intermingled with rural Punjabi peasants.

The blasphemy laws with punishment of death sentence for anyone accused of belittling or ridiculing prophet Muhammad by their speech or action and anyone found to be disrespectful to Koran by improper question/speaking or disposing of papers containing Koranic verses. Police complaint by local clergy was needed as proof of guilt. Blasphemy law was used indiscriminately against ahmedis and Christians in Punjab and against Hindus and Sikhs in Sindh and frontiers to settle petty property disputes, in which the accuser walked away with war booty and the non Muslim victim stood to loose everything. Even obtaining a bail from court sometimes meant being gunned down by militants within few meters of police stations.

Individuals stood up against tyranny by committing suicide in public protest Pervaiz messiah a lowly Christian cleaner burnt himself alive while demanding democracy. Bishop John Joseph Shot himself in protest against death sentences awarded to Christian teenagers in blasphemy cases.

Lawyers, journalists, teachers and others who came out protesting against oppression, faced tear gas beatings and imprisonment and torture at the hands of police and army security forces. Civil society organizations like women action forum, Human rights commission, voice against rape and Pakistan India peoples forum for peace and democracy emerged out of the dark days of Islamic dictatorship backed shamelessly by Margaret Thatcher and Ronald Reagan.

Benazir, the daughter of martyr Bhutto, came back after years in jail and exile to lead several million men marches against dictatorship. In April 88 Pakistani intelligence blew up the ammunition depot storing missiles, explosives and state of the art stinger launchers, to hide the illegal sale to Iran and other bidders and to stop US military audit finding out the full extend of scam. The resulting inferno and projectiles killed nearly three thousand civilians in cities of Rawalpindi and Islamabad.  August 88 Zia’s aero plane was blown up in mysterious circumstances. Rumours circulated that Zia’s  Coffin contained bones of American Arnold Raphael and Brigadier Wassem  of US Army.

Benazir became the first female Muslim prime minister in the world despite Saudi grand mufti Shaikh Al Baz declaring her apostate from Islam.1990s was the see saw of power politics between right wing Nawaz Sharif(political heir to Saudis and Zia) and  a compromised corrupt Benazir wife of Zardari(Mr 10%) .The notorious military Intelligence was busy creating the Frankenstein monsters we now know as Osama bin Laden and al Qaeda. Pre 9/11 Bin Laden gave money to Sharif MPs to oust Benazir and tried General Abbasi’s Islamic coup plot to establish caliphate in Pakistan. But the proto type of Global Islamism was perfected in Afghanistan with Arab manpower, money from arms and drug trade and clandestine connections in Muslim populations world over with mafia like tentacles. The rest, as they say, is history. Kashmir, Chechnya, Palestine and 9/11 New York, Iraq and London Madrid and Bali the template of terrorism was implemented by  Jihadists.
Political Islam’s Globalisation

Tragically, Benazir (Book “Daughter of the East” 2007) died at the hands of a suicide bomber at the same spot where in 1951 the first prime minister was gunned down. Story of political Islam has completed the full circle with history repeating itself. The gains made by civil society in the struggle for democracy and freedom of judiciary ,achieved by street protest and activism are compromised in deal making and power brokering. Saudi Arabia, UAE and USA remain the guarantors and underwriters of power whether its the corrupt current president Mr 10% Zardari or the future (president in waiting) Mr Sharif of Mecca simpleton (sorry cannot write autobiography only reads phone directories) Tableeghi (Muslim Jehovah’s witness). A foreign journalist once said Pakistan Owes its existence to Allah, America and Army. The Army “greatest defender of Muslim faith and Islamic Atom bomb”, behaves like the band of mercenaries from “pirates of Arabian Sea”, switching sides from Islamists to Bible bashing American fundamentalists whenever the pay is right. At other times paddling their nuclear ware to rogue states like Iran Libya and North Korea.

For Jihad ,”The World is Flat”

All this is important because the disintegration of Pakistan will unleash the forces of evil, ranging from nuclear brief cases to training manuals and kits for “dirty bombs”. The civil society, the free media and satellite channels, human rights activist and professional middle class, is overwhelmed by the onslaught of Islamists which can result in balkanisation of Pakistan.UK can do well by strengthening the civil society and secular political parties because one million of British citizens/residents are of Pakistani origin coming from Kashmir and north west of Pakistan.7/7 suicide bomber mastermind Mohammed siddique khan prayed at Tableeghi(Mr Nawaz sharif ‘s mentors) Jamat’s  HQ in Dewsbury. Thomas Friedman’s Theory “The World is Flat”, I hasten to add “World is a small place”, “what you sow, so shall you reap”.


Filed under Islam, Islamism

34 responses to “Civil Society Political Islam & Shariah Law

  1. YLH

    This is so fraught with mistakes that it is not even funny… Off the top of my head:

    1. ML changed its manifesto from loyalist to Pro-swaraj in 1913. That is when Jinnah joined it.

    2. The red shirts cannot be termed left wing…I have discussed their politics elsewhere.

    3. Communist Party of India supported the Muslim League and a multitude of communists became part of the Muslim League. Like any national movement, Muslim League had right left and center elements in it … After 1948 however the League was decisively right wing.

    4. In 1927-28 when Jinnah appeared for Ilmdin at an appellete forum (jinnah was not the trial lawyer in this case) there was no demand for separate Muslim nation and Jinnah’s argument was divided into two parts. First part was that there was no evidence that Ilmdin actually committed the crime. This was rejected by the appellate court. The second part of Jinnah’s argument was that Ilmdin was a young boy of 19 or 20 years of age who had been misled by the maulvi – hardly a populist argument may I add.

    Ilmdin was my grand father’s cousin. The so called Ghazi ilmdin maintained till the end that he didn’t do it- yes that’s right I know everyone else was taught something quite different but don’t take my word for it- the entire case is on record. Ilmdin not only claimed he was innocent… He even filed a mercy petition with the crown.

    So I wonder how and why people come up with such fantastic notions.

  2. YLH

    5. Bacha Khan was not arrested in connection with the conspiracy case in 1951. He had been detained on orders of qayyum khan since 1948 for his activities in collusion with Faqir of Ipi and the Afghan government.

    6. Fatima Jinnah’s candidacy did manage to get an endorsement from Maulana Maududi of Jamaat e islami despite his views about women not being allowed to run. It was a great step forward.

    7. Tehreek e nifaz e fiqah jafaria is not a militant organization nor is it backed by Iran per se.

    8.Death penalty for blasphemy was introduced through Shariat bill in 1991 under the first Nawaz Sharif government.

  3. Aliarqam

    The article is based on informations got from words of mouth…havent took the pain of research and references…as YLH or Sherry do….
    Jinnah was declared Kaafir azam by Ehraar molvi Mazhar Ali…

  4. Aliarqam

    Fiqqah jafia had militant faction as Sipaah e Muhammad
    as Sipaah e Sahaba had Lashkar Jhangvi.,

  5. sherryx

    A nice read, despite some debatable points, the overall thrust of article is in right direction. we should not be harsh.

  6. YLH

    9. Also the section 17 of the Qanun-e-Shahadat Order has been a subject of much debate. It is to my mind an unnecessary encroachment of scripture on secular law.

    However that said the law is limited to written financial transactions to which everything is an exception. This has no application to criminal law or even regular civil law…

    That said…it should be done away with.

  7. Tahir

    Maulana Ihtesham ul Haq Thanvi on History of Pakistani Politics – Part I

  8. Tahir

    Maulana Ihtesham ul Haq Thanvi on History of Pakistani Politics – Part II

  9. azhar aslam

    what a load of tosh. in what direction is the overall thrust ?

  10. Aliarqam

    Use of religion for political means…is gut of the issues…

  11. its great to see the debate and passion. apologise for dates and researched accuracy. but all facts are true to best of knowledge

  12. Tahir

    Its time we write a more authentic history of Pakistan instead of the BS we are taught in the name of Matuliyya e Pakistan. We have effectively been dumbed down, devout of any ability for lateral thinking, by our education and mass media our decades.

  13. Tahir

    over decades

  14. Tahir

    devout=devoid…whats wrong with my spellings today

  15. Hossp

    How do you write authentic history in a country where they will not even let you see the government papers?
    This is just an amateurish narration of events over the past 60 years, lacking any analysis.

    Mujib was never a socialist. He was a Muslim League student leader and a low ranking ML leader later on. Yes, in 1972 he declared Bangladesh a socialist and secular country but within two years he changed the constitution to revert it back to non secular. Then he went on reciting the Quran ayah before his speeches. He allowed JI to rehabilitate after the Islamic summit in Lahore to get aid from Saudi Arabia.
    History is a bitch…understanding the motives behind events makes you figure the whole thing out. Narrating the events is not history, It story telling!

  16. sherryx

    Narrative is not history, a very acute observation i must say, not many understand it, the debates of historiography and philosophies of history.

  17. sherryx

    Narrative is not history, a very acute observation i must say, not many understand it, the debates of historiography and philosophies of history.

  18. Tahir

    Pakistan: From religious politics to religious extremism -PART I

    Pakistan: From religious politics to religious extremism -PART II

  19. YLH

    Well said Hossp…

    I am glad you are beginning understand what Hossp means.

  20. Hossp

    Tahir, The linked articles are not history either. We need to grow out of this childish fetishes with reading and recommending ridiculous stuff.
    Educated Bengali Muslims in my opinion were the staunchest Muslim Leaguers in 1947 and communal too. Mujib was a quintessential Muslim Leaguer of the era and he never changed. Given short shrift by the Unionist Muslim Leaguers of Punjab and UP mohajirs, they opted out! Once in power, Mujib too short changed Hindus by refusing to give their properties back when they came back from the refugee camps in 1972.
    YLH, I sent you an email.

  21. aish

    This is quite an interesting narrative, albeit a controversial one. I wish this was engaged more intensively with references, because it has potential in sparking healthy speculation.

    I think it asks a legitimate question about the role of religion in politics. Maybe elaboration would help, because a lot of the evidence is quite brief and not explained (or supported through context) enough to seem appropriate for the overall claim. May I request a follow-up, or an edit?

  22. Majumdar

    HP sain,

    ……Educated Bengali Muslims in my opinion were the staunchest Muslim Leaguers in 1947 and communal too. …..

    I agree with the bolded part especially. And that is why I think that the failure to implement an exchange of population on the Punjab lines in Bengal and Assam as suggested by SP Mukherjee was a huge blunder by the Indian leadership, perhaps greater than the misguided annexation of Kashmir. This might cost India dear.


  23. AG

    the author has written an excellent article to read It one just needs to, suspend belief in logic or coherence. forego ideas of reserach and development of any written article. although, i might be wrong this could be fiction a sort of re-imagining. I have heard its “in” these days. Many of the laughable errors have been pointed out by YLH. There is btw no connection between the tableeghi jamaat and jihad, infact the tableeghi jamaat has been critisized for being anti Jihad. is this article from england or pakistan? I heard from a professor of mine once that if one responds to a ridicolous arguement one end up legitimizing it. basic rule of dialectics he said. Unfortunately i could not shut up and take the inane crap for the sake of inane crap. I hope Pak tea house will filter this stuff out.

  24. AG

    There is one difference between foriegn exchange and bad articles about pakistan by people who dont live here, we need the foriegn exchange, so gather all of your proud “paki” gang and collect some sterling and send it our way it will help.

  25. Tahir

    “There is btw no connection between the tableeghi jamaat and jihad, infact the tableeghi jamaat has been critisized for being anti Jihad”

    You are wrong there…jihadis were openly marketing themselves in the last tabligi ijtema held just days ago in which Nawaz Sharif participated.

    Also read this;

    Wolf in Sheep’s Clothing
    The West’s misreading of Tablighi Jamaat actions and motives has serious implications for the war on terrorism. Tablighi Jamaat has always adopted an extreme interpretation of Sunni Islam, but in the past two decades, it has radicalized to the point where it is now a driving force of Islamic extremism and a major recruiting agency for terrorist causes worldwide. For a majority of young Muslim extremists, joining Tablighi Jamaat is the first step on the road to extremism. Perhaps 80 percent of the Islamist extremists in France come from Tablighi ranks, prompting French intelligence officers to call Tablighi Jamaat the “antechamber of fundamentalism.”[12] U.S. counterterrorism officials are increasingly adopting the same attitude. “We have a significant presence of Tablighi Jamaat in the United States,” the deputy chief of the FBI’s international terrorism section said in 2003, “and we have found that Al-Qaeda used them for recruiting now and in the past.”[13]


    Tablighi Jamaat: An Indirect Line to Terrorism

  26. Tahir

    “i could not shut up and take the inane crap for the sake of inane crap”

    Actually you are giving a lot of crap without giving the reason for disagreeing with the article…sounds like a nerve has hit somewhere..

  27. AG

    i was just giving a comment but u have definately reacted to it. there was an incident when the americans were convinced that there were weapons in the ijtama only later to find out that they were actually lotas. yes “lotas” which they thought were weapons. and again i am not part of the jamaat. and another thing an article in mid east quarterly can surely not be ur research. can it? but it is good to see u coming to the aid of the author.

  28. Tahir

    AG cut the BS. You are drowning yourself into it too much and can’t differentiate BS form anything else.

  29. Tahir

    Tabligi jamaat is on Germany’s watch list and Muhammad Siddique the 7/7 London bomber was a tabligi jamaat member.

  30. Tahir

    More history;

  31. its encouraging to see the debate and insults as well. I think achieved my objective by provoking a debate. thank you all and thanks to PTH to act as a hyde park speakers’ corner
    where one can even hurl any accusation at queen. people in comments have said “these pakis should take their pounds back to uk” Paki is a racist abusive term used to discribe lowly asians by BNP thugs.I invoked such strong reactions, but when arguments and logic fails abuse is only reaction left.

    I hope to contribute more to PTH in future good things about pakistan(not just our unfortunate dark past) which asks people to burn books and shut their ears. put their heads in sand and pretend “all is well” well i am afraid all is not hunky doory in pakistan
    PTH would like to write about books and controversial people like tariq ali but in a constructive sense, I am planning to compile a list of best sellers published by British Pakistanis like case of mangos and reluctant fundamentalist and biography of yasmeen hai all best seller lists in UK and Europe (may be US as well i don’t know) , i was happy to see mohsin hamed books at #56 in British charts at Euston station at the oldest book shop in a railway anywhere in the world.
    And other stuff about Pakistanis abroad honouring name of Pakistan(ask not what country can do for you ,nothing much. What can you do for Pakistan?) unlike generals and mullahs dishonouring Pakistan.I would like to write about shia pakistani heritage is a issue i would like to take up much like PTH post on old city in Lahore

  32. AG

    ok tahir u win, websites are accurate research tools i am blown away , hahaha.